Matter and Anti-Matter.
Prior to the Quran philosophers thought that the atom was the smallest indivisible component of matter. However today we know that this is false. Atoms are composed of electrons, neutrons and protons. And lately it turned out that those neutrons and protons are made of quarks... However 1400 years ago the Quran contradicted the common knowledge of the time. It stated that the atom is not the smallest part.
[Quran 10:61] Whatever you may be doing, and whatever portion you may be reciting from the Quran, and whatever deed you may be doing, We [Allah] do witness when you are doing it. And nothing is hidden from your Lord (so much as) the weight of an atom on Earth and in heaven, not less than that nor more but is (written) in a clear record (on the Preserved Tablet).
How could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have known that the atom is not the smallest component of matter?
Until 100 years ago it was thought that only man and animals were made in pairs (males and females). However the Quran said that everything from which the land produces, man and what they could not see were also made of pairs. Today we know that all matter is in pairs: matter and antimatter (electrons and positrons, quarks and antiquarks...)
(Quran 36.36) Glory to Him [Allah], Who created in pairs all things that the land produces, and their own kind (humans) and other things of that they have no knowledge of.
How could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have known that matter is in pairs?
(The Christian Bible claims that stars burn like lamps, that is, it is a chemical reaction Revelation 8:10. However in reality there is no burning, instead atoms fuse inside stars by gravity, a nuclear reaction not chemical)