Time is Relative - Age of Universe
Time is relative. We know from Einstein that my clock and your clock will not run at the same rate. Time (or rate of our clocks) depends on acceleration and/or gravity. If my clock accelerates and/or is in a strong gravitational field then it will run slower than your clock. Quran 22.47 compares time on Earth with time at Paradise/Hell (1 day vs 1000 years). While Quran 70.4 compares time on Earth with time in wormholes (1 day vs 50,000 years).
Moslems believe that Paradise and Hell are both much bigger and much more massive than Earth (but still much smaller than God's Throne). The theory of general relativity says that time passes slower near an object more massive than Earth (clocks run slower in stronger gravitational fields). So according to general relativity, time should pass in Paradise/Hell much slower than on Earth. Moslems say that this is what Allah says. It is stated in the Quran that 1 day in Paradise/Hell measures a 1000 years on Earth:
[Quran 22.47] They challenge you to bring forth that torture [in Hell] and Allah will not break His promise; a day of your Lord [Paradise/Hell promise] is like a thousand years of what you count.
Here God promises those who do not believe in Hell and punishment that each day of their torture in Hell will measure a thousand years on Earth. So according to the Quran, time passes faster on Earth than in Paradise/Hell. But this agrees with the theory of general relativity which says that time passes slower near bigger mass. Paradise and Hell are much more massive than Earth and time should pass there much slower than on Earth.
Christians believe that God created the universe in 6 earthly days and rested on the 7th. Moslems believe that 6 days passed at God's Throne but we experienced 13.7 billion years on Earth: Moslems believe that God is not bound to His Throne; rather He created it and set it as a reference. The Quran says that God's Throne is even wider than the whole universe; so how about the mass of God's Throne? God's Throne is much more massive than Earth. Time should pass there much slower than on Earth:
Our solar system is 4.57 billion years old. Earth started accreting concurrently with the sun and our neighbouring planets 4.57 bln years ago. However the universe is 13.7 ± 0.2 bln years old. This places the age of Earth at one third the age of the universe (4.57 bln/13.7 bln = 1/3). Moslems say that this is what Allah says. The Quran says that in God's Throne time Earth is 2 days old while the Heavens, Earth and everything in between are 6 days old (2/6 = 1/3):
[Quran 7.54] And your Lord, Allah, who created the Heavens and the Earth in six days and then settled on the Throne...
Those six days are on the Throne; so the frame of reference for creation is the Throne, not Earth.
[Quran 41.9] Say: "Is it that you deny Him [Allah] who created the Earth in two days? And you claim others to be equal to Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds."
[Quran 50.38] And we have created the Heavens and Earth and EVERYTHING IN BETWEEN in six days and We were not touched by fatigue.
All those days are on the Throne; the frame of reference for creation is still the Throne. When God says that He created the Heavens, Earth and EVERYTHING IN BETWEEN (including you and me) in six days this means that He is referring to the period of existence. Earth has been in existence for 2 days (out of 6).
Moslems believe that God sustains all living things. And all His commands to the angels to sustain man and animals were inscribed on the Preserved Tablet. The Quran says that not even a leaf would drop on Earth without it being previously recorded in this Preserved Tablet. God says that He inscribed this Preserved Tablet before the creation of Earth started; He answered our prayers today (as commands for the angels on the Preserved Tablet) during the first four days when Earth was still smoke. After this He ordered Earth to form:
[Quran 41.9-12] Say: "Is it that you deny Him [Allah] who created the Earth in two days? And you claim others to be equal to Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds." He set on it (Earth) mountains, and bestowed it with blessings. And [Allah] estimated all its sustenance in four days, equally for those who ask (prayers) AFTER THIS (Thumma in Arabic) [Allah] commanded the heaven and it was still smoke. He said to it and to Earth: "Come together, willingly or unwillingly." They said: "We do come together, in willing obedience". So [Allah] decreed them as seven heavens (one above the other) in two days and revealed to each heaven its orders. And We [Allah] adorned the lowest heaven with lights, and protection. Such is the decree of the Exalted; the Knowledgeable.
God answered our prayers today when Earth was still smoke (the first four days). After this (Thumma in Arabic) God ordered Earth to form. The formation of Earth took two days. So our prayers today are already answered on the Preserved Tablet since before the formation of Earth started. Also in the last two days God created the seven superimposed heavens and revealed their orders.
In God's Throne time, Earth is 2 days old while the Heavens, Earth and everything in between are 6 days old. This makes the age of Earth to be one third the age of the universe (2/6 = 1/3). Similarly in Earth time, the age of Earth is 4.57 billion years while the age of the universe is 13.7 billion years; this is also one third (4.57 bln/13.7 bln = 1/3). So it is the same ratio in Earth time or in God's Throne time. The theory of general relativity explains why time at God's Throne passes slower than on Earth. General relativity explains why 6 days passed at God's Throne but we measured it as 13.7 billion years (that is each day at God's Throne measures around 2.28 billion years on Earth). So according to the Quran:
God's Throne > Paradise/Hell > Earth
The smaller the mass, the faster the time.
We are sure that time is relative, that is, the age of the universe is different for observers with clocks running at different rates. For example, there exists an observer who measures the age of the universe to be 3 billion years, however he also measures the age of Earth to be 1 billion years. But the Quran presented it as a ratio (1/3) and this ratio turned out to be correct for any observer (whatever the clock rate). If the Quran presented it in any form other than a ratio it would have been wrong for different observers.
Quran 32.5 is time vs distance; this gives us speed of angels which turned out to be the speed of light. However Quran 22.47 and Quran 70.4 are time vs time (no distance); this is time dilation. Quran 22.47 compares time of Earth with time at Paradise/Hell (1 day vs 1000 years). While Quran 70.4 compares time on Earth with time in wormholes (1 day vs 50,000 years).
(The Christian Bible puts the creation of Earth on day one; making the age of Earth equal to the age of the universe. So the age of the universe according to the Bible is six thousand years).