Dark Energy, Redshifting and Expanding Universe

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The universe was created in a Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago, is still expanding today, and billions of years from now it might recollapse by its own gravity with a Big Crunch or continue expanding forever and end in a Big Rip. Moslems say that this is what Allah says. The Quran says that on the first day of creation, God made the heavens and the Earth meshed together, tight and compact (Big Bang), continues to expand it into the universe we know today and at the last day God will recompress it into its original state (Big Crunch).

About the first day (Big Bang), Allah says:

[Quran 21.30] Do not those who disbelieve see that the heavens and the Earth were meshed together then We ripped them apart? And then We made of water everything living? Would they still not believe?

About the expanding universe, Moslems say that Allah told them about this expansion 1400 years before it was discovered:

          [Quran 51.47] And the heaven, We built it with craftsmanship and We are still expanding.

Scientists just confirmed the existence of "Dark Energy", a mysterious repulsive force that acts in opposite to gravity. As the distance increases, the attractive gravitational force decreases but this mysterious repulsive force increases. This repulsive force is pushing galaxies apart; the greater the distance the greater the repulsion. Scientists today do not know what this "Dark Energy" is, but they know that it is causing the entire universe to expand at an increasing rate.

For the first 7 bln years after the big bang the expansion of the universe slowed down because the attractive gravitational forces were stronger than this repulsive force. However as the distances between the galaxies increased the attractive gravitational forces weakened while this repulsive force became stronger. This made the expansion of the universe to enter an accelerating phase:


Do you remember how a rose opens up? That is, the outer petals move outwards more than the inner petals? Imagine that those petals have galaxies on them and that we are at the center of the rose. Now imagine this rose opening up; the farther out the petals are the faster their recession away from the center (where we are). Well this is exactly how the universe expands around us; the farther out galaxies are from us the faster their recession away from us.

[Quran 55.37] If the heaven ripped and it were a rose like paint...

Here God assures skeptics about Paradise: if the heaven ripped open like a rose then Paradise will as surely contain so and so...

Do you remember how an ambulance siren sounds like when it approaches you? And how it sounds like when it recedes from you? The sound pitch changes, right? Similarly when a light source approaches you or recedes from you its colors change. If it is approaching you the colors shift towards the blue, and if it is receding from you its colors shift towards the red; the faster it recedes the redder it appears. Today we know that galaxies are rushing away from us from redshifting of their light. The more distant galaxies are the more reddish their colors appear to us.

When you apply paint, the colors' intensity is not even but rather it changes with distance:

Similarly the more distant galaxies are the more reddish their colors appear to us, that is, there redness is a function of distance. This is because the farther galaxies are the faster they are receding from us (like a rose). The Quran describes it as: Rose like paint, that is, it's color varies with distance.

All observers anywhere in the universe also see the universe expanding away from them the same way (like a rose). Hence everyone in the universe thinks that he is at the center of the Big Bang!!! This is because the Big Bang did not have a center. See, if you continue walking on Earth in the same direction you will circle Earth and eventually come back to where you started; right? Similarly when you continue traveling through the universe in the same direction you might come back to where you started; we still don't know this for sure. But what we are sure of is that every observer in the universe thinks that he is at the center of the Big Bang; every observer in the universe sees the universe expanding away from him like a rose.

The future of the universe has three possible scenarios depending on this dark energy:

The first scenario is if this dark energy is constant over time; then the expansion of the universe would continue accelerating forever. After a hundred billion years or so from now most of today's observable galaxies will not be visible (they will disappear from our sight but they will continue to exist). This is called the Big Chill (cold & lonely).





The second scenario is if this dark energy increases with time then the universe will experience a catastrophic runaway expansion. Within 100 billion years or so from now every galaxy, star and atom in the universe will be ripped apart!!! This is called the "Big Rip".



The third scenario is if this dark energy decreases with time. This eventually leads to a slowing of the expansion of the universe followed by a recollapse. This is called the "Big Crunch". In some ways this scenario resembles the Big Bang in reverse.


NASA recently ruled out  the second scenario (No Big Rip; see also: Universe Today). This leaves the universe with only two possible endings: Big Chill or Big Crunch (first and third scenario), depending on what this Dark Energy turns out to be.

Moreover, scientists today use the same word "ripped" to describe how the universe expands (the same word that the Quran used 1400 years ago). See this zoomed in fabric:


Imagine there is a map printed on it. Now stretch this fabric equally in both the x and y directions. The distances between the weaves increase however all distances on the map remain proportional, right? Well this is exactly how the universe expands around us: All distances increase however they remain proportional. This is how expansion of spacetime occurs. This is why scientists say that this Dark Energy is "ripping" the Universe apart.

Now how the universe will end in the future is a different story. It might end with a Big Rip, Big Chill or a Big Crunch, depending on this Dark Energy:


However today this Dark Energy is ripping the universe very slowly (when compared to the Big Rip or the Inflation that occurred during the Big Bang).

This Dark Energy is causing spacetime to expand, that is, this Dark Energy is creating space everywhere each second (Learn more). God already challenged nonbelievers to detect this creation:

[Quran 67.3-4] [Allah] is the one who created seven superimposed Heavens. You do not see variations in the formations of the Compassionate, so redirect your sight, do you see any creation? 4 Then redirect your sight again, your vision returns to you in defeat and regret.

Today they looked again and found this created space indeed (along with Dark Matter).

In the Quran God also promises to make the Big Crunch:

[Quran 21.104] On the day when We will fold the heaven, like the folder compacts the books, and as We originated the first creation We shall return it; a promise (binding on Us); surely We will deliver.

Here God promises to make this Big Crunch but not by gravity, rather by folding the Heavens like a book, that is, by the same mechanism He controls wormholes. This means that this Big Crunch can begin and end in a fraction of a second!

You might question how could this Big Crunch happen in just a fraction of a second? Wouldn't that be faster than the speed of light? Isn't that a contradiction with special relativity which says that nothing can go faster than the speed of light? Well yes it is faster than the speed of light, but the Big Bang itself turned out to be faster than the speed of light! The Big Bang started from a cosmic singularity and then expanded much faster than speed of light. During the Big Bang a process called "INFLATION" occurred. A fraction of a second (10-38 sec) after the cosmic singularity was created inflation started. During inflation, the size of our observable universe increased from an initial size smaller than the size of an atomic nucleus (10-23 millimeters in diameter) to approximately the size of our galaxy (one hundred thousand light years across). The duration of this inflation was only a fraction of a second (10-35 sec). So the Big Bang itself was a zillion times faster than the speed of light. This is not a contradiction with special relativity because spacetime itself expanded. In God's promise of the Big Crunch spacetime itself will contract, that is, it is inflation but in reverse.

Our observable universe (the one we can detect with today's equipment) consists roughly of 100 billion galaxies with each galaxy consisting of about 100 billion stars. (Number of observable stars = 100bln x 100bln; that's one with 22 zeroes next to it). If you can count 23,000 stars per second you will need more than 13.7 billion years to finish counting!!! This observable universe is just a fraction of the entire universe. After this Big Crunch is over the entire universe would be squeezed into a space smaller than the size of an atomic nucleus; just as it all started in the Big Bang.

Also after this Big Crunch is over, God promises to recreate those heavens and Earth once more before Judgment Day:

[Quran 14.48] On the day when Earth will be swapped by another Earth and so will be the heavens; and all (creatures) will resurrect before the One Dominant God.

[Quran 36.81] Is He not, who created the heavens and the Earth, capable of creating others like them? 82 Yes, indeed! He is the All-Knowing Creator. 83 His command, if He wanted a thing, is that He only says to it, "BE" and it becomes! So glorified is He in whose hands is the dominion of all things, and to Him you shall be returned.

Moslems ask how could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have known about Redshifting and Expanding Universe?



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