Speed of Light


The Quran (Koran, the book of Islam) defined:

Speed of Light
Relativistic Time Dilation
Gravitational Time Dilation
Pulsars, Black Holes, Singularity
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Dark Energy, Redshifting, Expanding Universe
Dark Matter, Gravitational Lensing, Multiverse

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Speed of Light = 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day

1400 years ago it was stated in the Quran (Koran, the book of Islam) that angels travel in one day the same distance that the moon travels in 1000 lunar years, that is, 12000 Lunar Orbits / Earth Day. When the geocentric frame is inertial 12000 Lunar Orbits / Earth Day turned out to be the known speed of light!



 

Speed of LightYou cannot talk about the speed of light without defining your frame of reference. The measured speed of light in local inertial frames is 299792.458 km/sec. So if you want to make a comparison with "299792.458 km/sec" then you have to make it in a "local inertial frame".

Special Relativity requires the frame of reference to be inertial (travel in a straight line). Since Earth (our local frame of reference) is orbiting the sun then it is not traveling in a straight line, hence it is non-inertial. So when we compare the nominal speed of light with 12000 Lunar Orbits / Earth Day inside the gravitational field of the sun (non-inertial frame) we get 11% difference; however when the geocentric frame is inertial we get zero% difference:

As long as Earth is not traveling in a straight line then any geocentric frame is not inertial, hence NASA's measurement of the lunar orbit is made in a non-inertial frame. So we have to calculate the lunar orbit in an inertial frame starting from the measured one in this non-inertial frame. We need to calculate 12000 Lunar Orbits / Earth Day when the geocentric frame travels in a straight line, on the other hand we already know that outside sun's gravity it would travel in a straight line. But from the equivalence principle we know that these two experiments are equivalent, that is, whenever Earth is inertial you will get the same results as if Earth is outside sun's gravity. We chose to calculate the lunar orbit outside sun's gravity because it is easier to calculate however these two experiments are absolutely identical:

In a local frame non-rotating with respect to sun the moon speeds up when it heads towards the sun and then slows down by the same amount when it heads away from the sun. However in a local frame non-rotating with respect to stars the sectors where the moon speeds up and slows down are actually moving forward inside the orbit by the same angle Earth orbits the sun. In this frame there is a rotational force around Earth. This means that the lunar orbit is influenced by a torque-like force around Earth (twist, assist). As the distance to the sun increases to infinity the lunar orbit loses this twist. When we remove the energy gained from this twist we can calculate the total energy and hence the length of the lunar orbit outside gravitational fields. When the Earth-moon system exits the solar system the geocentric frame travels in a straight line (becomes inertial) and 12000 Lunar Orbits / Earth Day becomes equivalent to the speed of light. The difference in this local inertial frame is 0.01%.

Moslems (Muslims) believe that angels are low density creatures, and that God created them originally from light. They move at any speed from zero up to the speed of light. It is the angels who carry out God's orders. Those angels take their orders from a Preserved Tablet somewhere in outer space, and not from God's Throne. They commute to and from this Preserved Tablet to get their orders from God. In the following verse, the Quran describes how angels travel when they commute to and from this Tablet. And the speed at which they commute to and from this Tablet turned out to be the known speed of light:

[Quran 32.5] (Allah) Rules the cosmic affair from the heavens to the Earth. Then this affair travels to Him a distance in one day, at a measure of one thousand years of what you count.

It is the angels who carry out these orders (see Arabic wording at footnote [1]). Those people back then measured the distances neither in kilometers nor in miles but rather by how much time they needed to walk. For example, a village two days away meant a distance equivalent to walking for two days; ten days away meant a distance equivalent to walking for ten days... However in this verse the Quran specifies 1000 years of what they counted (not what they walked). Those people back then followed the lunar calendar and counted 12 lunar months each year. These months are related to the moon and not related to the sun. Hence in 1 day the angels will travel a distance of 1000 years of what they counted (the moon). Since this verse is referring to distance, then God is saying that angels travel in one day the same distance that the moon travels in 12000 lunar orbits. 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day = distance/time = rate of motion (speed). However this speed depends on the frame of reference, that is, you could define million different frames and get million different results. But if you want to compare it with the speed of light in local inertial frames then you need to make the comparison in a local inertial frame.

The month for the Arabs was 29.5 Earth days, but Earth (the reference frame) was and still is non-inertial. 299792.458 km/sec is the measured speed of light in local inertial frames. These are different frames. To overcome this discrepancy in frames we are calculating 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day when the geocentric frame is inertial and then comparing it with 299792.458 km/sec.

Have you noticed that when you spin on your toes your clothes fling outwards? And that when your spin slows down your clothes settle back inwards? This is what also happens when the Earth-moon system gains or loses rotational kinetic energy, the distance to the moon changes (hence the length of the lunar orbit changes).

Do you know why the same half of the moon always faces Earth? The moon has been facing Earth like this for more than 4 billion years. Just like Earth rotates on its axis once every day with respect to stars, the moon also rotates on its axis with respect to stars. Since the moon keeps facing Earth this means that the moon needs to travel 360 degrees around Earth with respect to stars in order to rotate 360 degrees on its axis with respect to stars. When the moon first formed it was very close to Earth and it orbited Earth once every few hours, today this period is 27 days, and as the moon continues to recede this period will continue to increase; the greater the distance from Earth the greater this period becomes. When this period becomes 50 days, for example, this also means that it will take the moon 50 days to rotate 360 degrees on its axis with respect to stars. So as the moon recedes from Earth its spin with respect to stars slows down, that is, it loses rotational kinetic energy (this is different from moon's kinetic energy due to moon's motion around Earth). If the distance to Earth increases to infinity, the moon would stop spinning with respect to stars and hence its rotational kinetic energy decreases to zero. This proves that the moon's rotational kinetic energy is a function of the distance from Earth. Similarly the total energy of the Earth-moon system is a function of the distance from the sun, that is, as the distance to the sun changes the total energy of the Earth-moon system changes, hence the length of the lunar orbit changes. Since the distance to the sun is not a constant then a definition using Lunar Orbits/Earth Day inside the gravitational field of the sun is impossible. However when the Earth-moon system exits the solar system (becomes isolated) 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day becomes equivalent to the speed of light.

In a heliocentric frame non-rotating with respect to stars light travels in a straight line, hence this is a perfectly inertial frame. However in this frame Earth DOES NOT travel in a straight line, hence the geocentric frame is non-inertial:

Circular motion of Earth around the Sun

In a geocentric frame non-rotating with respect to sun the moon speeds up when it heads towards the sun and then slows down by the same amount when it heads away from the sun. However in a geocentric frame non-rotating with respect to stars the sectors where the moon speeds up and slows down are actually moving forward inside the orbit by the same angle Earth orbits the sun. In this frame there is a rotational force around Earth. This means that the lunar orbit is influenced by a torque-like force around Earth (twist, assist). As the distance to the sun increases to infinity ø decreases to zero and lunar orbit loses this twist. When we remove the energy gained from this twist we can calculate the total energy and hence the length of the lunar orbit outside gravitational fields.

Equation:

Distance traveled by angels in one day = 12000 x Length of lunar orbit.

⇒C t' = 12000 L'

Where:

C

Is the speed of angels, which we intend to calculate and then compare to the known speed of light (no external forces, no acceleration, no deceleration).

t'

Is Earth Day outside gravitational fields i.e. time for one rotation of Earth about its axis with respect to stars.

L'

Is the length of the lunar orbit outside gravitational fields (no external forces, no acceleration, no deceleration).



Time \ Frame of Reference:

This table below shows the lunar month and Earth day in both sidereal system (with respect to stars) and synodic (with respect to sun):

Period

Synodic (sun)

Sidereal (stars)

Earth day t

24 hours = 86400 sec

23 h 56 min 4.0906 sec = 86164.0906 sec

Lunar Month T

29.53059 synodic days

27.321661 synodic days = 655.71986 hours

Every new moon (29.5 days) the moon will not return to the same point in the orbit (it will be at a different point). The moon returns to the same point in the orbit after only 27.3 days. When the moon returns to the same point with respect to stars the Earth-moon system would have moved 26.9 degrees around the sun (not 29.1 degrees):


Any astronomical measurement depends on the frame of reference. Your frame of reference is your clock and coordinate system (your ruler\axis and its orientation\rotation). When measuring 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day in km/sec you could define million different frames and get million different results. However historically two geocentric frames were popular: the synodic and the sidereal systems. Both qualify as local frames but they differ by their rotation. The sidereal system is a local frame non-rotating with respect to stars, while the synodic system is a local frame non-rotating with respect to sun. The month for the Arabs was 29.5 Earth days which means they used the synodic system. The synodic system is a local frame non-rotating with respect to sun; however this frame is rotating with respect to stars. In the animation below the left side has two superimposed frames, one non-rotating with respect to sun (x,y) plus another one non-rotating with respect to stars (X',Y'). The right side has just one frame non-rotating with respect to sun (x,y):

Rotating frames vs non-rotating frames

Frame non-rotating with respect to sun is actually rotating with respect to stars. From Special Relativity we know that in inertial frames light should travel in a straight line, consequently an inertial frame cannot rotate with respect to stars. Why? Because in rotating frames with respect to stars light DOES NOT travel in a straight line, and the measured speed of light in these frames is undefined (the distance travelled in one hour gives a different speed than distance travelled in two hours...). Rotating frames with respect to stars by definition are non-inertial. In General Relativity the local inertial frames where the measured speed of light is 299792.458 km/sec are actually frames non-rotating with respect to stars (not non-rotating with respect to sun). So the Arabs used the synodic system which is a rotating frame with respect to stars, and the speed of light in their non-inertial frame is undefined.

From Special Relativity we know that in inertial frames light should travel in a straight line, consequently an inertial frame cannot rotate with respect to stars. Even if a frame does not rotate with respect to stars it should not change direction (frame should travel in a straight line). However gravity's obvious effect on frames is to change their direction of travel (makes frames travel in a curve): Consider a heliocentric frame non-rotating with respect to stars; in this frame light travels in a straight line, hence this is a perfectly inertial frame. But as Earth circles the sun then in a geocentric frame light will make a long sine wave (not a straight line). This is proof enough that the geocentric frame is non-inertial.

Gravity's obvious effect on frames is to change their direction of travel however it is General Relativity that accurately describes the effects of gravity on frames of reference: Gravity causes perfectly inertial frames to rotate.

Gravity and inertial frames of reference

Gravity Probe B experiment confirmed that inside gravitational fields it is impossible to define a non-rotating frame with respect to stars unless this frame exits the gravitational field or it enters a gravitational freefall towards the gravitational source straight in from afar (frame-dragging + geodetic precession). This means that for any geocentric frame to be non-rotating with respect to stars Earth has either to exit the solar system or to enter a gravitational freefall towards the sun (straight in from afar).

Hence it becomes important to distinguish non-inertial motion:

  1. If you are in a spaceship and fire your rockets then you are not inertial.
  2. If you are orbiting the sun then a gravitational force is accelerating you towards the sun; hence you are not inertial either (even if your tangential speed around the sun remains constant).

You can find the answer in:

'General Relativity', Lewis Ryder, Cambridge University Press (2009).

Page 7: "There are, however, two different types of such [non-inertial] motion; it may for instance be acceleration in a straight line, or circular motion with constant speed. In the first case the magnitude of the velocity vector changes but its direction remains constant, while in the second case the magnitude is constant but the direction changes. In each of these cases the motion is non-inertial, but there is a conceptual distinction to be made."

So inside the gravitational field of the sun 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day make 11% difference with 299792.458 km/sec when compared in a local frame non-rotating with respect to stars (sidereal system); however this frame is non-inertial. When we calculate 12000 Lunar Obits/Earth Day outside the gravitational field of the sun then this frame would travel in a straight line + would not rotate with respect to stars (becomes inertial). The difference in this local inertial frame is 0.01%. Finally from the equivalence principle we know that there is no difference between an experiment in a local inertial frame outside sun's gravity and an experiment in a local inertial frame inside sun's gravity, that is, whenever Earth is inertial you will get the same results as if Earth is outside sun's gravity. We chose to calculate the lunar orbit outside sun's gravity because it is easier to calculate however these two experiments are absolutely identical.

You can find the equivalence principle in:

'Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, With Modern Applications in Cosmology', Øyvind Grøn & Sigbjorn Hervik, Springer (2007).

Page 15: This means that an observer in such a freely falling reference frame will say that the particles around him are not acted upon by any forces. They move with constant velocities along straight paths. In the general theory of relativity such a reference frame is said to be inertial.

Einstein’s heuristic reasoning also suggested full equivalence between Galilean frames in regions far from mass distributions,
where there are no gravitational fields, and inertial frames falling freely in a gravitational field. Due to this equivalence, the Galilean frames of the special theory of relativity, which presupposes a spacetime free of gravitational fields, shall hereafter be called inertial reference frames. In the relativistic literature the implied strong principle of equivalence has often been interpreted to mean the physical equivalence between freely falling frames and unaccelerated frames in regions free of gravitational fields. This equivalence has a local validity; it is concerned with measurements in the freely falling frames, restricted in duration and spatial extension so that tidal effects cannot be measured.

See the synodic system and non-inertial frames at footnote [2].

When the Earth-moon system is still inside the solar system the position of the sun relative to Earth with respect to stars changes; this means that the moon has to make more than 360 degrees with respect to stars in order to point to the sun again. However when the Earth-moon system exits the solar system the position of the sun relative to Earth with respect to stars remains the same, that is, the moon now only has to make 360 degrees with respect to stars in order to point to the sun again (the synodic periods become equal to the sidereal periods). This means that the lunar month with respect to the sun becomes equal to lunar month with respect to stars and Earth day with respect to the sun becomes equal to Earth day with respect to stars. So the 1000 lunar years with respect to sun become equal to 12000 lunar months with respect to stars.

For any valid comparison all measurements should be taken in the same frame. However most skeptics refuse to define their frame of reference, instead they use measurements taken in multiple frames. They insist on the synodic system which is a geocentric frame non-rotating with respect to sun (first frame). They use the velocity of the moon as published by NASA; however NASA uses the sidereal system which is a geocentric frame non-rotating with respect to stars (second frame). They falsely assume that the velocity of the moon in a non-rotating frame is equal to the velocity of the moon in a rotating frame. And then they compare it to the speed of light in a local inertial frame; this is a non-rotating frame traveling in a straight line (third frame). So in the same equation they use measurements taken in THREE different frames!!! Physics wise this is garbage, all measurements should be taken in the same frame.

Length of Lunar Orbit

Length of lunar orbit = Velocity x Time  (L = V T)

In a local frame non-rotating with respect to stars the velocity of the moon is not a constant. NASA measured the instantaneous velocity of the moon at various points throughout its orbit. These measurements show that the velocity of the moon varies considerably (from 3470 km/hr up to 3873 km/hr); which means that the moon accelerates and decelerates continuously. The average lunar velocity is Vavg = 3682.8 km/hr (1.023 km/sec).

The lunar orbit relative to Earth is a low eccentricity ellipse, however we cannot use the equation for the perimeter of an ellipse. Why? Because Earth lies on the major axis of this ellipse; but since the direction of the axes change with respect to stars then when the moon returns to the same position with respect to stars this does not mean that it made an exact ellipse (a local frame non-rotating with respect to the ellipse is actually rotating with respect to stars). So most astronomers calculate the length of the lunar orbit in a local frame non-rotating with respect to stars by the following equivalent circle method:

L = V T = 2 π R

⇒ V = 2 π R / T

However this velocity is under the influence of the gravitational pull of the sun. We can vectorially calculate the velocity of the moon relative to Earth without the gravitational assistance of the sun and hence the isolated length of the lunar orbit: Displacement is a vector (has magnitude and direction) and from this displacement vector we get the velocity vector (magnitude and direction); and from this velocity vector we get the kinetic energy. If external work is done we end up with a resultant displacement vector, resultant velocity vector and resultant kinetic energy. In our case we have to backtrack.

The work done by the gravitational field of the sun by creating a net rotational force on the lunar orbit (twist) is:

Rotational frorce around Earth

In a local frame non-rotating with respect to sun the moon speeds up when it heads towards the sun and then slows down by the same amount when it heads away from the sun. However in a local frame non-rotating with respect to stars the sectors where the moon speeds up and slows down are actually moving forward inside the orbit by the same angle Earth orbits the sun. In this frame there is a rotational force around Earth. This means that the moon's orbital energy is the sum of the energy acquired from this twist plus the intrinsic energy of Earth-moon system (kinetic energy of Earth's spin transferred to the lunar orbit by ocean friction).

Ocean Friction:

Do you remember the oceanic high tides and low tides? Well they are caused by lunar gravity. This figure teaches you how ocean friction transfers the kinetic energy of Earth's spin to the lunar orbit:

Ocean friction makes the moon recede

As the moon acquires more energy from Earth's spin it does not actually speed up, instead it slows down because it orbits at a higher altitude (R' increases). If Earth were spinning in the opposite direction the reverse process would have happened; the moon would have lost altitude and eventually crashed into Earth.

Speed of Light Right TriangleToday's lunar orbit is a very low eccentricity ellipse (very close to a perfect circle) but when the moon first formed it was a very high eccentricity ellipse. The eccentric ellipse back then had a point very close to Earth and another point very far out. When the moon was nearest to Earth inside the ellipse the gravitational forces were stronger and hence more energy was transferred to the moon when it was closer to Earth than when the moon was farther out inside the ellipse. This made the moon recede more when it was closer to Earth than when it was farther out inside the ellipse. This difference in recession rates smoothed out the differences between the closest and the farthest points in the orbit (this is why today's lunar orbit is very close to a perfect circle). So for each direction the recession has different magnitude. Since this recession has magnitude and direction then it is a displacement vector (R'). However in every direction this displacement vector is normal to the rotational force around Earth (always at right angles with the rotational force around Earth, 90°). Since the resultant R is the sum of two normal displacement vectors then those displacement vectors form a right triangle. We can use trigonometry to solve those displacement vectors:

By definition in a right triangle cosø = side adjacent / hypotenuse.

side adjacent = hypotenuse cosø

 R' = R cosø

We can verify this triangle by the Pythagorean Theorem:

(R sinø)2 + (R cosø)2 = R2sin2ø + R2cos2ø = R2 (sin2ø + cos2ø) = R2 (1)

Hence cosø is the only solution to this restricted three-body problem.

To learn why there are two tidal bulges, one facing the moon and another one opposite to it, see footnote [3].

Inertial Earth-Moon System:

The lunar orbital radius R is a function of total energy, however the total orbital energy comes form two sources: ocean friction and gravitational twist (two sources, not one). As the distance to the sun increases to infinity the lunar orbit loses this twist; but without the energy gained from this twist the orbital radius decreases to R' = Rcosø.

You might ask why can't the moon simply remain at radius R and velocity Vcosø? Well the answer to this is actually counter intuitive. If you were driving a car and apply brakes then the car will decelerate (lose kinetic energy). But if you apply brakes to the moon (lose kinetic energy) the moon will slow down for a while however it will become unstable (too high too slow). The moon that was at the right velocity around Earth now becomes a little bit too slow for Earth's gravitational force (shortage in kinetic energy). To compensate for this imbalance the moon descends to a lower altitude (trades excess potential energy above Earth with kinetic energy). After descending a bit the moon speeds up and returns to equilibrium. So contrary to driving a car, if you apply brakes to the moon it will eventually speed up! This might sound crazy however it is true. In our case the orbital radius decreases to R' = Rcosø and the moon accelerates to Speed of Light.

The ratio of the orbital binding energy (the ratio of the work required to move the moon against gravity to infinity) is:

Orbital Binding Energy

This means that without the energy gained from this twist the orbital radius decreases to R' = Rcosø. Hence when inertial the length of the lunar orbit becomes L' = 2πR' = 2πRcosø = Lcosø (i.e. 12000 L' / t' = 12000 Lcosø / t') and the orbital period decreases (see proof at footnote [4]).

Today when the moon makes 360 degrees around Earth with respect to stars the Earth-moon system moves 26.92952225 degrees around the sun. Hence the lunar orbit's twist angle ø = 26.92952225 degrees. We can calculate ø from the period of one heliocentric revolution of the Earth-moon system (365.2421987 days):

ø = (360 degrees / 365.2421987 synodic days) x 27.32166088 synodic days = 26.92952225 degrees

Similarly, Earth's spin slows down by 6 seconds i.e. the isolated Earth day t' becomes 86170.43114 sec (see proof at footnote [5]).

Compare:

So finally we can check the accuracy of this equation in the Quran:

  C t' 12000 L'

The distance traveled by light in one Earth Day = C t' = 299792.458 km/sec x  86170.43114  sec = 25833245358 km

The distance traveled by angels = 12000 L' = 12000 x 3682.8 km/hr x 655.71986 hr x cos(26.92952225) = 25836303825 km

By dividing the two distances we get the ratio of 1.00011839267.

Difference  = 0.01%


Inertial geocentric frame: 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day = SPEED OF LIGHT

 


Constant:

Since the distance to the sun is not a constant (see why at footnote [6]) then if it is defined inside the gravitational field of the sun then this definition will be wrong with time; however since it is defined outside the gravitational field of the sun then this definition will be true forever:

Ocean friction causes the rotation of Earth to slow down, that is, for the days to get longer (t' increases). And as Earth's rotation slows down the moon recedes (R' increases):

c = 12000 L' / t' = 12000 2 π R' / t'

Both R' and t' are increasing but due to a fundamental law in astrodynamics the ratio R' / t' remains the same: The force decelerating Earth is the same force pushing the moon. Since the force pushing the moon is gravitational, then it is inversely proportional to the square of the distance to the moon (F α R-2). Similarly, this same force decelerating Earth is proportional to the change in kinetic energy in Earth's spin, that is, it is inversely proportional to the square of Earth day (F α t-2). This makes the square of the distance to the moon to be directly proportional to the square of Earth day (R-2 α t-2). This implies that the distance to the moon remains proportional to Earth day (R α t). Hence R / t is a constant. So when inertial R' / t' is a constant equal to 3.976120966 (R' / t' = R cosø / t'). But this means that there are no variables in this equation: c = 12000 L' / t'. So when inertial c = 12000 Lunar Orbits/ Earth Day is a constant forever.

4.52 billion years ago the moon formed when a planet the size of Mars collided with Earth. On impact Earth gained rotational speed. However ocean friction has been slowly transferring Earth's rotational kinetic energy to the lunar orbit. On impact of that planet with Earth, the molten debris flung with a certain escape velocity and sucked vaporized water and some gases from Earth's atmosphere. This debris clustered to form the moon. But the moon couldn't maintain those gases because its gravity was extremely weak and it didn't have a strong magnetic shield; so it lost those gases and settled in orbit without this mass. The equation in the Quran c = 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day has been true in the isolated system ever since the moon first lost this mass, that is, since the early creation of the Earth-moon; is true today and as the moon continues to recede this equation in the Quran will always be true.

Speed of Light:

Lunar Orbits/Earth Day is common to all observers; Km/sec is not.

Suppose that you have a clock and a ruler (which is not rotating with respect to stars) and that you are not accelerating (inertial). Locally (where you are) you will always measure the speed of light at 299792.458 km/sec. However in the presence of gravity if I am at a different location than yours then I could measure the speed of light at your location to be any value smaller than or greater than 299792.458 km/sec. It depends on where I am and where you are (it depends on locations). So in the presence of gravity the speed of light becomes relative (variable depending on the reference frame of the observer). This does not mean that photons accelerate or decelerate. This is just gravity causing clocks to run slower and rulers to shrink. 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day = 299,792.458 km/s is the speed of light for observers standing outside gravitational fields and looking at light also traveling outside gravitational fields. But an observer near a black hole for example sees the speed of light outside gravitational fields a zillion km/s. This is because the velocity of light appears to vary with the intensity of the gravitational field (See proof at footnote [7]).

From General Relativity we know that an observer standing outside gravitational fields looks at events inside gravitational fields and sees them in slow motion. When he steps inside those gravitational fields he sees them in normal speeds. But now he looks back at where he was outside gravitational fields and sees the events there in fast motion. In our case the event is the moon orbiting Earth. When an observer in stronger gravitational fields, near a black hole for example, looks at the Earth-moon system he does not see the moon orbiting Earth once every month; instead he sees the moon orbiting Earth once every few seconds; he also sees the length of the lunar orbit to be much longer than we see it. This is because the gravitational field that he is in causes his clock to run slower and his ruler to shrink.

Not only observers in different gravitational fields will not agree on the time period for the lunar orbit but also they will not agree on the length of the lunar orbit either. By using classical orbital mechanics we discovered that all observers will see the speed of light outside gravitational fields equal to 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day; but from General Relativity we know that they will never agree on a value in km/sec. An observer near a black hole for example sees the speed of light outside gravitational fields a zillion km/s, but still equal to 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day! This means that if the speed of angels outside gravitational fields were defined in km/sec then it will appear to vary for observers in different gravitational fields; however since this speed was defined in Lunar Orbits/Earth Day then it will never appear to vary to anyone because 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day is common to all observers. Hence the Quran gave us a better definition for time and distance: A definition common to all observers, forever!!!

Moslems ask how could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have figured out the three-body problem, speed of light and general relativity?

 

[Quran 10.5]  It is He (Allah) who made the sun to shine and the moon to light, and destined it in stages; that you may learn to count the years and the mathematics. Allah only created this in truth. He details His Signs for those who are knowledgeable (scientists).

See how angels can reach anywhere in the universe before you finish reading this sentence: Wormholes (Below)

(see the problem of Christians with the speed of light at footnote [9])

-Top-


Relativistic Time Dilation

The Quran states another verse in which angels traveling at a certain velocity, appear to experience slower time than humans.

[Quran 70.4] The angels and the Spirit ascend to Him in a day, the measure of which is fifty thousand years.

Here angels will experience 1 day while humans will measure it as 50,000 years (time vs. time and not time vs. distance as the previous lunar verse). This can happen if:

  1. Angels accelerate to relativistic speeds.

  2. Angels are in a strong gravitational field.

1. Outside gravitational fields this agrees with Einstein’s theory of special relativity, which says that a faster moving object appears to experience slower time. Moslems use Einstein’s theory of special relativity with the following verse in the Quran to assert that angels indeed accelerate up to the speed of light. Given this time difference (time dilation) we can calculate the speed at which that object traveled. We can verify if those angels really accelerate up to the speed of light, as claimed by Moslems, or not. Outside gravitational fields this speed turned out to be 99.99999999999981% of the speed of light:

∆t= ∆t0/(1-v^2/c^2)^1/2

(Where ∆to is the time measured for a mover by a mover; ∆t is the time measured for a mover by a stationary frame; v is the velocity of the mover relative to the stationary observer):

∆to is the time experienced by angels (1 day).

∆t is the time as measured by humans (50,000 lunar years x12 lunar months/lunar year x 27.321661 days/lunar month).

v is the velocity of angels in this case (which we intend to calculate and then compare to the known speed of light).

c is the nominal speed of light, 299792.458 km/s.

From the above equation we can solve for the unknown velocity:

v =c (1-∆t0 ^2/∆t^2)^1/2

This time dilation (time difference) shows that angels indeed accelerate to relativistic speeds; outside gravitational fields this is the same speed calculated from the previous lunar verse also outside gravitational fields.

We cannot calculate our local speed of light from this time dilation however we can calculate at what percentage of the speed of light those angels are traveling relative to an observer on Earth. By this we can compare a time dilation (50,000 years vs. one day) with a speed (12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day). We can do this by translating both of them to a common speed in km/sec. Outside gravitational fields 50,000 years vs. one day shows angels traveling at 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day; it is the same speed in km/sec.

2. However inside gravitational fields 50,000 years vs. one day shows angels crossing a wormhole (معراج) at a few meters/sec. This is a picture of a wormhole. The Quran says that angels use these wormholes to reach any place in the universe. An observer outside gravitational fields sees those angels passing by him at 99.99999...% of the speed of light (relativistic speeds, very close to the local speed of light), that is at 299792.457999...km/s. But when those angels enter the gravitational field of a wormhole this observer still sees those angels entering the wormhole at 99.99999...% of the speed of light however that would no longer be at 299792.457999...km/s. This is because in the presence of gravity the speed of light becomes relative. If he sees the speed of light in a wormhole at 10 meters/sec, for example, then he would see those angels traveling at only 9.999999...meters/sec, flapping their wings in slow motion, reddish in color and very dim (and in turn they would see him in fast motion, bluish in color and very bright).

A smaller time dilation (say 100 or 1000 years vs. one day) can also occur if we stand on Earth and angels stand on a pulsar or a neutron star (or resist their fall into a pulsar, see Gravitational Time Dilation below). This makes their velocity relative to us to be zero (and not 299792.457999... km/s). But naturally occurring wormholes connect distant black holes; however at a lower time dilation (100 or 1000 years vs. one day) the two entrances of the wormhole cannot connect; hence a wormhole cannot form. So with the time dilation stated in the Quran (50,000 years vs. 1 day) and the fact that angels are moving then those angels have to be crossing a wormhole. The pulsar scenario or any other combination cannot do. Learn more: Wormholes

Moslems ask how could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have figured out Time Dilation and the core of Relativity?

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Gravitational Time Dilation

Clocks run slower in stronger gravitational fields (near bigger mass).

Moslems believe that Paradise and Hell are both much bigger and much more massive than Earth (but still much smaller than God's Throne). The theory of general relativity says that time should pass slower near an object more massive than Earth (clocks run slower in stronger gravitational fields). So according to general relativity, time should pass in Paradise/Hell much slower than on Earth. Moslems say that this is what Allah says. It is stated in the Quran that 1 day in Paradise/Hell measures a 1000 years on Earth:

[Quran 22.47] They challenge you to bring forth that torture [in Hell] and Allah will not break His promise;  a day of your Lord [Paradise/Hell promise] is like a thousand years of what you count.

Here God promises those who do not believe in Hell and punishment that each day of their torture in Hell will measure a thousand years on Earth. So according to the Quran, time passes faster on Earth than in Paradise/Hell. But this agrees with the theory of general relativity which says that time passes slower near bigger mass. Paradise and Hell are much more massive than Earth and time should pass there much slower than on Earth.

Christians believe that God created the universe in 6 earthly days and rested on the 7th. Moslems believe that 6 days passed at God's Throne but we experienced 13.7 billion years on Earth: 

Moslems believe that God is not bound to His Throne; rather He created it and set it as a reference. The Quran says that God's Throne is even wider than the whole universe; so how about the mass of God's Throne? God's Throne is much more massive than Earth. Time should pass there much slower than on Earth:

Our solar system is 4.567 billion years old. Earth started accreting concurrently with the sun and our neighbouring planets 4.567 bln years ago. However the universe is 13.7 ± 0.2 bln years old. This places the age of Earth at one third the age of the universe (4.567 bln/13.7 bln = 1/3). Moslems say that this is what Allah says. The Quran says that in God's Throne time Earth is 2 days old while the Heavens, Earth and everything in between are 6 days old (2/6 = 1/3):

[Quran 7.54] And your Lord, Allah, who created the Heavens and the Earth in six days and then settled on the Throne...

Those six days are on the Throne; so the frame of reference for creation is the Throne, not Earth.

[Quran 41.9] Say: "Is it that you deny Him [Allah] who created the Earth in two days?...

Also those two days are on the Throne. The frame of reference for creation is still the Throne, not Earth. When God says that He created the Heavens, Earth and EVERYTHING IN BETWEEN (including you and me) in six days this means that He is referring to the period of existence. Earth has been in existence for 2 days (out of 6).

In God's Throne time, Earth is 2 days old while the Heavens, Earth and everything in between are 6 days old. This makes the age of Earth to be one third the age of the universe (2/6 = 1/3). Similarly in Earth time, the age of Earth is 4.567 billion years while the age of the universe is 13.7 billion years; this is also one third (4.567 bln/13.7 bln = 1/3). So it is the same ratio in Earth time or in God's Throne time [8]. The theory of general relativity explains why time at God's Throne passes slower than on Earth. General relativity explains why 6 days passed at God's Throne but we measured it as 13.7 billion years (that is each day at God's Throne measures around 2.28 billion years on Earth). 

So according to the Quran:

God's Throne > Paradise/Hell > Earth

The smaller the mass, the faster the time

Moslems ask how could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have figured out that time passes slower near bigger mass?

We are sure that time is relative, that is, the age of the universe is different for observers with clocks running at different rates. For example, there exists an observer who measures the age of the universe to be 3 billion years, however he also measures the age of Earth to be 1 billion years. But the Quran presented it as a ratio (1/3) and this ratio turned out to be correct for any observer (whatever the clock rate). If the Quran presented it in any other form other than a ratio it would have been wrong for different observers.

(The Christian Bible puts the creation of Earth on day one; making the age of Earth equal to the age of the universe)

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Pulsars, Black Holes & Singularity

General relativity predicted the formation of black holes from neutron stars. (Neutron stars are remnants of exploded stars, see Iron below). As more matter falls into a neutron star its mass increases; and as its mass increases its gravity increases. A point will be reached where gravity would have grown so much that not even light could escape, thus a black hole forms.

Most neutron stars discovered today are in the form of radio pulsars. They are called radio pulsars because they emit radio waves; we can simply connect a radio telescope to a loud speaker and hear a pulsar. Pulsars sound like someone persistently knocking. Click here and listen to a slow knocking pulsar. Click here and listen to a fast knocking pulsar

So in short, we can hear a pulsar knock; and if matter continues to fall into this pulsar a black hole will eventually form. Moslems say that this is what Allah says. The Quran describes a star by "The one who knocks" and says that it is "The one who makes a hole".

[Quran 86.1-3] And the heaven and the "Knocker" (Tarek in Arabic) 2 How could you know about the "Knocker"? 3 The piercing star (Thakeb in Arabic).

The Arabic word "Thukb" means a hole; "Thakeb" means the one who makes the hole. The Quran is describing a knocking star that makes a hole.

All stars will eventually die. They will either directly collapse on themselves and become black holes, or their remnants will merge with other stars that will eventually become black holes, or if external mass falls into those remnants they will blow up and leave black holes... So black holes are the destiny of most stars. Actually our solar system formed out of debris of a star 100 times more massive than our sun that exploded and became a black hole. At the center of black holes (collapsed stars) lies a location called the Singularity. An observer far away from a black hole sees the events near a back hole in slow motion. If he shines a beam of light into this black hole he will have to wait forever but still this beam of light will never reach the singularity. The singularity is a location in the future of stars where gravity goes so mad that space and time become indistinguishable. From general relativity we know that this is a location where the structure of spacetime becomes singular (hence the name singularity). However singular (Ahad in Arabic) is one of God's 99 names. In the Quran God swears by the locations of stars which turned out to carry His own name:

[Quran 56.75-77] I swear by the locations of stars, 76 it is a great swear if you knew, 77 it is a noble Quran...

Here God swears not by the stars but rather by their locations (mawakeh in Arabic). Today we know that the future of those locations is singular, that is, they carry God's own name: "Ahad".

Moslems ask how could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have figured out Pulsars, Black Holes and Singularity?

[Quran 26.2-6] These are the verses of a clarifying Book. 3 You might be frustrated that they don't believe; 4 If We wish, We hand down from the heaven a sign (proof); their necks to it remain subdued. 5 And every new revelation they were given from The Most Gracious (Allah) they dismissed. 6 They disbelieved (the Quran), so they will receive the news of what they have been mocking.

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Wormholes (معارج)

 

Naturally occurring wormholes connect distant black holes.

Look up to the night sky and select a star as a destination. Can any human reach this star by just walking few steps?

General relativity explained a mechanism to contract this huge distance into few meters. Albert Einstein called this mechanism ‘bridges’ in space-time. Today, scientists call them wormholes. A wormhole would act as a shortcut connecting two distant regions in the universe.

A wormhole contracts the distance between two doorways placed separately anywhere in the universe. Example, consider a galaxy 100 million light years away. When you look today from Earth to that galaxy, you will not see it as it is today, but rather as it was 100 million years ago. This is because light took 100 million years to travel all that distance. But if you take a journey inside a wormhole from Earth to that galaxy, you would reach that galaxy today. So when you reach it today, you will see it as it is today, not as it was 100 million years ago. So if you use a wormhole, events at that galaxy (your destination) would appear as if in fast forward (from 100 million years ago till today).

When you reach that galaxy today and look back at Earth, you would not see Earth as it is today; instead you would see Earth as it was 100 million years ago (you would see the dinosaurs). This is because light took 100 million years to reach there. So as you use a wormhole, events at Earth (your departure) would appear as if in fast rewind (from today till 100 million years ago).

On the return journey, events on Earth (destination) would appear as if in fast forward (from 100 million years ago till today); while the events at that galaxy (departure) would appear as if in fast rewind (from today till 100 million years ago). This is not time travel; this is just a consequence of the length contraction inside a wormhole.

Physicists know how a wormhole works but have never actually used one. Do you remember how a frictionless roller coaster works? That is, you start high and slow then you go down and fast but when you come back up again to your previous height you return to your previous slow speed? Well, the wormhole is the most efficient roller coaster you can imagine. Energy is not required to move through the wormhole, that is, you can simply switch off your rockets. Gravity accelerates you and pulls you through and then expels you the other side. You will feel like being swept by waves at the beach; nothing more.

On your way through, gravity causes your clock to run slower and your ruler to shrink. Distant observers see you accelerating to relativistic speeds; as a result, your energy (and mass) increase dramatically in their view; but when you get out the other side everything returns back to normal (your clock, ruler...). 

(YouTube) God gave this method of transportation to his angels throughout the universe. The Quran calls them ‘Ma'arej معارج’ and describes how angels use them for long distance travel. Today Moslems know that these ‘Ma'arej’ is what scientists call wormholes: 

[Quran 70.1-4] Someone asked about the penalty that will befall 2 the unbelievers; (A penalty) that has none to ward off; 3 (a penalty) from Allah (who owns) wormholes [Ma'arej in Arabic] 4 The angels and the Spirit ascend to Him in a day, the measure of which is fifty thousand years.

Any object passing through this wormhole will also experience this same time dilation (one day inside wormhole vs. 50,000 years on Earth) and not just those angels. This time dilation does not say how long it takes you to cross the wormhole, it just says that when you pass through the wormhole you age by this ratio. This space is called hyperspace (برزخ).

God says that those wormholes are doors in the heaven that contract interstellar distances into walking distances; the resulting scenery is bizarre: God says that those who do not believe in the message will not believe it even if He showed them a bigger sign. He created beautiful towering structures in the heavens. If He opens for those nonbelievers a door in heaven and lets them continue passing through it to those distant structures, they would not believe that they really got there by simply walking few steps. Instead they would think that they are just optical illusions:

[Quran 15.13-16] They do not believe the Message, like those who preceded them; 14 Even if We [Allah] opened upon them from the heaven a door and they continued passing through it 15 they would say ‘Our sight is bedazzled, rather we have been bewitched’ 16 It is We [Allah] who have made towering structures in the heavens and made them beautiful for beholders. 17 And We protected them from every evil spirit accursed.  

Here, they wouldn’t believe their own eyes thinking that what they see is not real. They wouldn’t believe that they got to those heavenly structures by simply walking few steps. But God insists that what they see is real and not illusions (that is, they really got there)

The Quran says that those heavenly doors are galactic shortcuts to distant places in the universe. Angels guard those heavenly doors 'from every evil spirit accursed'. Moslems believe that angels use these doors for long distance travel. Angels can accelerate up to the speed of light for domestic travel; but they use these wormholes to reach any place in the universe before you finish reading this sentence.

Moslems also believe that wormholes are not strictly for the use of angels. Their prophet used a wormhole once in the ‘Israa & Me'raj’ (Me'raj معراج is singular of Ma'arej) (Quran 17.1).

See: The Quran describes the doorways of a wormhole like two shells, exactly like modern science: Islam & Life on other Planets.

[Quran 21.104] On the day when We will fold the heaven, like the folder compacts the books, and as We originated the first creation We shall return it; a promise (binding on Us); surely We will deliver.

Here God promises to make the Big Crunch not by gravity but rather by folding the Heavens like a book, that is, by the same mechanism He controls wormholes. This means that this Big Crunch can begin and end in a fraction of a second!

You might question how could this Big Crunch happen in just a fraction of a second? Wouldn't that be faster than the speed of light? Isn't that a contradiction to special relativity which says that nothing can go faster than the speed of light? Well yes it is faster than the speed of light, but the Big Bang itself turned out to be faster than the speed of light! The Big Bang started from a cosmic singularity and then expanded much faster than speed of light. During the Big Bang a process called "INFLATION" occurred. A fraction of a second (10-38 sec) after the cosmic singularity was created inflation started. During inflation, the size of the entire universe increased from an initial size smaller than the size of an atomic nucleus (10-23 millimeters in diameter) to maybe the size of our galaxy (one hundred thousand light years across). The duration of this inflation was only a fraction of a second (10-35 sec). So the Big Bang itself was a zillion times faster than the speed of light. This is not a contradiction to special relativity because spacetime itself expanded. In God's promise of the Big Crunch spacetime itself will contract, that is, it is inflation but in reverse.

Our observable universe (the one we can detect with today's equipment) consists roughly of 100 billion galaxies with each galaxy consisting of about 100 billion stars. (Number of observable stars = 100bln x 100bln; that's one with 22 zeroes next to it). If you can count 23,000 stars per second you will need more than 13 billion years to finish counting!!! This observable universe is just a fraction of the entire universe. After this Big Crunch is over the entire universe would be squeezed into a space smaller than the size of an atomic nucleus; just as it all started in the Big Bang.

[Quran 34.6] And those who have received knowledge (scientists) will see that what have been sent down to you from your Lord (the Quran) is the Truth, and that it guides to the Path of the Exalted, Worthy of all praise.

Moslems ask how could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have figured out Length Contraction and Wormholes?

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Dark Energy, Redshifting and Expanding Universe

Science says that the universe was created in a Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago, is still expanding today, and billions of years from now it might collapse by its own gravity with a Big Crunch or continue expanding forever or end in a Big Rip. Moslems say that this is what Allah says. The Quran says that on the first day of creation, God made the heavens and Earth meshed together, tight and compact (Big Bang), continues to expand it into the universe we know today and at the last day God will recompress it into its original state (Big Crunch).

About the first day (Big Bang), Allah says:

[Quran 21.30] Do not those who disbelieve see that the heavens and the Earth were meshed together then We ripped them apart? And then We made of water everything living? Would they still not believe?

In the Quran the Heavens expanded from a single point.

The Christian Bible says that in the beginning God said "Let there be light" Genesis 1:3. Well it turned out that in the beginning photons couldn't travel at all. After the Big Bang the universe was primarily Hydrogen, Helium and a tiny bit of Lithium. However when a gas is too hot it becomes ionized (loses the electrons) and becomes opaque (like today's smoke). In the beginning the universe was opaque to visible light (non-transparent). After 300,000 years the universe cooled and it became transparent to visible light. For other wavelengths it was opaque for a billion years. So "Let there be light" turned out to be false. However the Quran said that in the beginning it was SMOKE:

[Quran 41.11] Then He directed himself to the Heaven when it was SMOKE, and then said to it and to Earth: "Come willingly or by force" they said "We do come willingly". .

How could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have known that it was just smoke after the Big Bang?

About the expanding universe, Moslems say that Allah told them about this expansion 1400 years before it was discovered:

          [Quran 51.47] And the heaven, We built it with craftsmanship and We are still expanding.

Scientists just confirmed the existence of "Dark Energy", a mysterious repulsive force that acts in opposite to gravity. As the distance increases the attractive gravitational force decreases but this mysterious repulsive force increases. This repulsive force is pushing galaxies apart; the greater the distance the greater the repulsion. Scientists today do not know what this "Dark Energy" is, but they know that it is causing the entire universe to expand at an increasing rate.

Do you remember how a rose opens up? That is, the outer petals move outwards more than the inner petals? Imagine that those petals have galaxies on them and that we are at the center of the rose. Now imagine this rose opening up; the farther out the petals are the faster their recession away from the center (where we are). Well this is exactly how the universe expands around us; the farther out galaxies are from us the faster their recession away from us.

[Quran 55.37] If the heavens ripped and it were a rose like paint...

Here God assures skeptics about Paradise: if the heaven ripped open like a rose then Paradise will as surely contain so and so... Today we know for sure that the universe is expanding around us like a rose.

Do you remember how an ambulance siren sounds like when it approaches you? And how it sounds like when it recedes from you? The sound pitch changes, right? Similarly when a light source approaches you or recedes from you its colors change. If it is approaching you the colors shift towards the blue, and if it is receding from you its colors shift towards the red; the faster it recedes the redder it appears. Today we know that galaxies are rushing away from us from redshifting of their light. The more distant galaxies are the more reddish their colors appear. Do you remember how paint looks like when it is applied? That is, the colors' intensity is not even but rather it changes with distance?

Similarly the more distant galaxies are the more reddish their colors appear to us. This is because the farther galaxies are the faster they are receding from us (like rose). The Quran describes it as: "Rose like paint", that is, its color varies with distance.

All observers anywhere in the universe also see the universe expanding away from them the same way (like a rose). Hence everyone in the universe thinks that he is at the center of the Big Bang!!! This is because the Big Bang did not have a center. See, if you continue walking on Earth in the same direction you will circle Earth and eventually come back to where you started; right? Similarly when you continue traveling through the universe in the same direction you might come back to where you started; we still don't know this for sure. But what we are sure of is that every observer in the universe thinks that he is at the center of the Big Bang; every observer in the universe sees the universe expanding away from him like a rose.

Moreover, scientists today use the same word "ripped" to describe how the universe expands (the same word that the Quran used 1400 years ago). See this zoomed in fabric, imagine there is a map printed on it. Now stretch this fabric equally in both the x and y directions. The distances between the weaves increase however all distances on the map remain proportional, right? Well this is exactly how the universe expands around us: All distances increase however they remain proportional. This is how expansion of spacetime occurs. This is why scientists say that this Dark Energy is "ripping" the Universe apart.

Now how the universe will end in the future is a different story. It might end with a Big Rip, Big Chill or a Big Crunch, depending on this Dark Energy:

NASA recently ruled out  the second scenario (No Big Rip; see also: Universe Today). This leaves the universe with only two possible endings: Big Chill or Big Crunch (first and third scenario), depending on what this Dark Energy turns out to be.

However today this Dark Energy is ripping the universe very slowly (when compared to the Big Rip or the Inflation that occurred during the Big Bang).

About the last day (Big Crunch), Allah promises:

[Quran 21.104] On the day when We will fold the heaven, like the folder compacts the books, and as We originated the first creation We shall return it; a promise (binding on Us); surely We will deliver.

Here God promises to make this Big Crunch not by gravity but rather by folding the Heavens like a book, that is, by the same mechanism He controls wormholes. This means that this Big Crunch can begin and end in a fraction of a second!

Also after this Big Crunch is over, God promises to recreate those heavens and Earth once more before Judgment Day:

[Quran 14.48] On the day when Earth will be swapped by another Earth and so will be the heavens; and all (creatures) will resurrect before the One Dominant God.

[Quran 36.81] Is He not, who created the heavens and the Earth, capable of creating others like them? 82 Yes, indeed! He is the All-Knowing Creator. 83 His command, if He wanted a thing, is that He only says to it, "BE" and it becomes! So glorified is He in whose hands is the dominion of all things, and to Him you shall be returned.

Moslems ask how could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have known about Redshifting and Expanding Universe?

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Dark Matter, Gravitational Lensing, Multiverse

 


The superimposed heavens in the Quran are the extra spatial dimensions in modern physics:

Astronomers have just confirmed the existence of Dark Matter. This mysterious Dark Matter is invisible however it provides the bulk of gravity that holds galaxies (not the regular matter that forms stars and planets). This invisible Dark Matter has weird collision properties (collisionless). Simply put: we cannot see Dark Matter nor collide with it but we can detect its gravity.

Speed of Light Seven Heavens

In this image, two huge clusters of invisible Dark Matter (in blue) clashed with each other. With each cluster having a mass of 10,000 galaxies (each cluster a quadrillion times the mass of the Sun, 1015)!!! (See: Universe Today). However upon impact, instead of disintegrating into smaller pieces, they passed through each other unscathed! This means that they did not collide with each other either! They simply passed through each other!!!  

In order to explain why this invisible Dark Matter neither collides with each other, nor does it collide with us but still we detect its gravity, physicists and cosmologists are working on theories with extra dimensions.  Traditionally scientists thought that we live in a four dimensional universe: Time and the usual three spatial dimensions of length, width and height (x,y,z). However today there is evidence for six extra spatial dimensions. So we cannot see nor collide with this Dark Matter because it is mass in the remaining six extra dimensions.

 

(YouTube) According to the Quran, we cannot see nor collide with Jinn but they have weight:

[Quran 55.31] We [Allah] will settle your affair, both you of weight (man and jinn)

The Jinn have weight means that we can detect their gravity and they can detect our gravity. So according to the Quran we cannot see the Jinn nor collide with them but we can detect their gravity.

Just as the Jinn is of different type that we cannot see nor collide with but we can detect their gravity, there are six other Heavens that we cannot see nor collide with either but we can detect their gravity, superimposed above the visible one:

[Quran 41.12] So [Allah] decreed them as seven heavens (one above the other) in two days and revealed to each heaven its orders. And We [Allah] adorned the lowest heaven with lights, and protection. Such is the decree of the Exalted; the Knowledgeable.

According to the Quran, only the lowest heaven has visible light. This means that this Dark Matter exists in the six Heavens superimposed above the lowest one. Also according to the Quran, each of these remaining six Heavens is of a different type and each has its own planets like Earth:

[Quran 65.12] Allah is the one who created seven Heavens and from Earth like them (of corresponding type); [Allah’s] command descends among them so that you may know that Allah is capable of anything and that Allah knows everything. 

Earth is not a unique planet in Islam. Other planets like Earth do exist throughout the other six Heavens. It is just that we cannot see them nor collide with them but we can detect their gravity.

General relativity predicted gravitational lensing, that is, the gravitational field generated by a galaxy causes the light passing through it to bend (change direction). Since this Dark Matter does not emit any light, we can map its location by using gravitational lensing, that is, by detecting where light is bending in places where it shouldn't. In the above image and video light gets bent by invisible dark matter. Moslems say that this is how God challenges nonbelievers to detect the remaining six superimposed Heavens:

[Quran 67.3-4] [Allah] is the one who created seven superimposed Heavens (سبع سموات طباق). You do not see variations in the formations of the Compassionate, so redirect your sight, do you see any creation? (Futtur in Arabic) 4 Then redirect your sight again, your vision returns to you in defeat and regret.

Futtur in Arabic فطور means creation out of nothing (it does not mean "rip"). So the question in the Quran is "Do you see any creation out of nothing?". Your initial answer should be NO. But in the second verse, when you are supposed to redirect your sight your answer will change to YES, with defeat. Why should you redirect your sight when you observe Dark Matter? Why should you look to another direction and then back? Well the gravity of a massive object makes you see the background stars in another direction:

Gravitational Lensing & Seven Heavens

This is how we detect Dark Matter today, the background images are lensed at a certain angle. Since Dark Matter does not emit any light then we have to trace the light from the background galaxies. From the distances and the angle of lensing we estimate the mass of the Dark Matter. So when detecting the superimposed seven heavens you have to look away and then back in order to measure the angle. No angle no Dark Matter.

Moslems ask how could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have known that light can change direction? How could he have known about Dark Matter and Gravitational Lensing?

The Quran insists on seven superimposed heavens. We are in the lowest heaven, Angels are in the seventh, and Satan (Jinn) is in one heaven in-between. However all seven heavens are superimposed. There are two angels at your shoulders right now. The Jinn can pass right through you. The Quran says that we cannot see them nor collide with them but we can detect their gravity. However these are the exact same properties of Dark Matter, we cannot see them nor collide with them however we can detect their gravity. String Theory explains what they are: They are mass in other dimensions:

Traditionally physicists thought that the smallest particles in atoms were point like, that is, they looked like points. However recently discovered evidence suggest that the smallest particle is not point like, as previously thought, but rather a vibrating string of energy. But physicists also discovered that these strings need more than three spatial dimensions to vibrate in. Particularly they need six extra spatial dimensions. In all versions of String Theory there are 10 dimensions: "Time" plus the usual three spatial dimensions x,y,z (4 dimensions, our observable universe) plus six extra spatial dimensions making a total of ten dimensions (1 time + 9 spatial = 10 dimensions).

(YouTube) In this animation the strings with different colors are actually vibrating in different dimensions. They do not interact with each other except gravitationally. The two dimensional membrane that they are attached to in this animation is the three dimensions that we are used to projected on 2D (for this presentation). Photons only travel on this 2D plane (again for this presentation), and this is why we cannot see them. We can only detect the strings' gravitational shadow on the 2D plane. Other competing theories like M-Theory has one extra spatial dimension (making the total 11 dimensions), however this extra spatial dimension is for the description of strings themselves (whether a string is a one-dimensional object like a thread, or whether a string is a rolled up two-dimensional membrane like a tube). If the strings have thickness (or variable thickness as in this animation) then we need this 11th dimension in order to describe them (to describe the tube). However if the strings have no thickness (always unity) then there is no need for the 11th dimension. In any case, in all currently competing theories, this Dark Matter is strings vibrating in six extra spatial dimensions. And in all those theories gravity is a force carried by gravitons (just like magnetism is carried by photons). Gravitons are emitted from those strings and are then absorbed by other strings even those vibrating in other dimensions (different colors in this presentation). The place where gravitons travel is called the bulk (different than the 2D plane where light travels in this presentation).

[Quran 20.6] To Him belongs what is in the Heavens and what is on Earth and what is between them and what is under the soil.

Not only does the superimposed heavens (extra dimensions) belong to Allah but also what's between them (the bulk where gravitons travel). The bulk is a location just like under the soil is a location.

From a physics point of view, we are not living in a "Universe" but rather in a "Multiverse"; several universes superimposed above each other. Gravity is the only thing shared between these parallel universes:

(YouTube) The invisible Dark Matter is simply mass in other dimensions.

You might ask how does those six extra spatial dimensions look like:

(YouTube) Extra dimensions are tiny and curled up at each point in space. To envision a single extra dimension imagine the ant in the above video shrinking billions of times. Then this ant becomes small enough for transition to the extra circular dimension (like a roller coaster):

Speed of Light

However instead of one extra circular dimension there are six dimensions and not necessarily circular; but they are all curled up at each point in space. The ant would encounter multiple routes like this:

Speed of Light

As long as the ant remains in any of those extra dimensions we would not be able to see the ant nor collide with it but we would still detect its gravity. In M-Theory the Dark Mater is not only mass in other dimensions but they are in parallel universes (where the laws of physics might not be the same as ours). The only thing shared among those superimposed parallel universes is gravity. Add our universe to those parallel universes you get the Multiverse.

Speed of LightOn the other hand God swears by the heaven that has weaves:

[Quran 51.7] And the heaven that has weaves (Hubuk in Arabic).  

Hubuk is plural of Habka which means a knot or a weave. Doesn't the route that this ant need to take look like a weave? Of course. Actually those Seven Heavens (Multiverse) are parallel universes woven together (literally).

God also swears that someday we will travel to one of those extra dimensions:

[Quran 84.16-19] I swear by the afterglow of sunset... You will ride one layer from another layer.(لتركبن طبقا عن طبق)

Here "Tabak طبق" is a noun meaning "a layer". The adjective "Tibak طباق" means "superimposed" and is used in describing the seven heavens "سبع سموات طباق". The superimposed heavens in the Quran are the extra spatial dimensions in modern physics.

Today we are sure that we are not living in a "Universe" but rather in a "Multiverse". No physicist today believes that we are living in the three-dimensional universe of the Christian Bible (where not even time is a dimension!). Moslems ask how could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years have known that we are living in a Multiverse?

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Iron

Stars start their lives as huge spheres of hydrogen gas. But the pressure at the center of the sphere should be much larger than the pressure at the surface, right? When the pressure at the center reaches a certain level, the hydrogen gas starts fusing together forming heavier helium gas (then all the elements up to iron). This fusion process releases energy. This released energy heats up the inner core and pushes the surrounding shell of gas outwards. But just like when you on Earth throw a ball upwards it has to fall back to you, the outer shell of the star has to fall back to the core. The only difference is that the fusion in the core of the star makes the same core mass slowly occupy smaller volume. A smaller core radius and same mass leads to stronger gravitational forces. If the same thing was happening to Earth's radius then every time the ball returns to you it would feel a little bit heavier. A time will be reached when the ball becomes so heavy that it breaks your arm. But this is what really happens in the core of stars. A time comes when the gravitational forces in the core become so strong that they fuse the electrons with the protons and turn them into neutrons. This breaks down all atoms!

Up until the discovery of pulsars (see Pulsars above) it was thought that no atomic nucleus can survive this gravitational collapse at the core. It was thought that the remnants of those collapsed cores consist of some electrons, some protons and predominantly neutrons (thus the name neutron stars). But the discovery of radio waves in pulsars means that neutron stars contain rotating iron cores! This means that the iron survived! Today we know that iron has the strongest bound nucleus among all elements.

[Quran 57.25] ... and We sent down Iron, in it great might...

Iron and most of the elements on Earth came from outer space. Iron was known and used long before the Quran however it was not the best choice for weapons because it rusted and it easily bent. The miracle is that the Quran said "in it great might" at a time when they only knew that it rusted and bent. Today we know that iron has the strongest bound nucleus among all elements. Learn more.

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Ice in Comets

Water on Earth actually came from outer space, particularly from ice in comets and meteors. When those comets enter our atmosphere the heat generated on entry vaporizes this ice into the atmosphere. Moslems say that this is what Allah says.

[Quran 2.164] In the creation of the Heavens and the Earth; In the alternation of the night and the day; In the sailing of the ships through the sees with what benefits mankind; In the water which Allah sent down from the Heavens and brought with it life to Earth after being dead and gave life in it to every kind of land animal; And in directing the winds; And in the clouds that are enslaved between the Heavens and the Earth; [All these] are Signs for a people who comprehend.

The clouds are enslaved between Earth and the heavens but the water itself came from the heavens (above the clouds). Here God is not talking about rain (matar or wadk in Arabic) instead God is talking about water (ma-e in Arabic).

In another verse, the Quran says that water originally came from the heavens (above the clouds) in the form of ice. There are mountains in heaven that have ice inside them; those mountains could fall on Earth making a very bright flash:

[Quran 24.43]  Can't you see that Allah makes the clouds move gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a pile? Then you see rain come out from within? And He sends down from heaven mountains with ice inside them; that strike whomever He wishes or miss whoever He wishes; Its flash almost blinds you.

God sent down from the heavens (above the clouds) mountains with ice inside them!!! The clouds are enslaved between the Heavens and Earth but the water itself originally came from the Heavens (above the clouds) in the form of ice in mountains. However today we know that this is exact because water on Earth actually came from ice in comets and meteors.

Rain hits everyone (no exceptions) however the Quran referred to mountains: "that strike whomever He wishes or miss whoever He wishes". Of course, the meteor that killed the dinosaurs was the size of a mountain. If we get hit with a meteor the size of a mountain we too will die. It is Gods' choice that we live or die.

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Honey Bees

The worker bees, those who gather pollen and make the honey, are actually all females. The male bees do not make honey. This was only known recently. However 1400 years ago the Quran refers to bees that generate the honey as females (the Arabic grammar is in the female mode):

[Quran 16.68-69] And your Lord (Allah) revealed to the bees: Build your hives in mountains, trees and in what people build. Then eat (for females) from every fruit and follow (for females) your Lord's enslaved paths, from their bellies (for females) exits drink of different colors, in it healing for man. These are signs for those who contemplate.

For the word "eat": "Kuli" is for females; "Kul" is for males. The Quran used "Kuli" (females).
For the word "follow a path": "Usluki" is for females; "Usluk" is for males. The Quran used "Usluki" (females).
For the word "their bellies": "butuniha" is for females; "butunihim" is for males. The Quran used "butuniha" (females).

How could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have known that those honey making bees are females?

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Secrets of Pyramids

For centuries, Egyptologists and geologists thought that the Egyptian pyramids were made of limestone blocks (up to 70 tons) that were quarried by chiseling limestone. Workers then carried those blocks up the pyramids on ramps. This building procedure was thought to be so superhuman that it made the pyramids become one of the Seven Wonders of the World. However today electron microscopes revealed that the blocks at the top have chemistries found nowhere in nature. Those blocks at the top must have been baked and then cast like modern cement (not chiseled from existing limestone) Learn More.

However 1400 years ago the Quran said that Pharaoh used baked clay (like modern cement; not chiseled limestone) to build their high rises:

[Quran 28.38] And Pharaoh said to his people: "I have not known a god for you other than myself; so Haman, light me a fire to bake clay so that I could build a rise high enough, maybe I see Moses' god whom I think is a liar."

How could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have known that those high 70 ton blocks were cast like modern cement?

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Earth

Earth is a sphere. Moslems say that this is what Allah says. The Quran says that when the night and the day overlap, they make a ball (sphere):

[Quran 39.5] [Allah] Created the heavens and the Earth in truth. He overlaps [Yukawer in Arabic] the night over the day and overlaps [Yukawer] the day over the night, and enslaved the sun and the moon. ALL MOVE (Kullon Yajree كل يجري) to a prerecorded destiny. Is He not the Exalted, the Forgiver?

The Arabic word "Kura" means ball; its verb "Yukawer" means: to make into a ball. The Quran says that the overlapping of the night and the day makes a sphere (ball).

Also the Quran says that EVERYTHING MOVES: not only the sun and moon but everything including Earth. In Arabic grammar there is difference between the singular (one), binary (two) and plural (three or more). In binary mode ""Kulahuma Yajreean كلاهما يجريان" however the Quran says "Kullon yajree كل يجري" referring to the plural (three or more). Hence not only the sun and moon move because the reference is to three or more. So according to the Quran everything moves even the spherical Earth.

Science says that the rotation of Earth is slowing down, that is, days are getting longer. Moslems say that this is what Allah says. The Quran says that Allah persistently asks more of the day and more of the night, that is, for the day to get longer:

[Quran 7.54] And your Lord, Allah, who created the Heavens and the Earth in six days and then settled on the Throne. [Allah] Covers the night with the day, asks for it persistently; and the sun and the moon and the stars enslaved by His orders. Is this not His creation and His command? Blessed be Allah the Lord of all the worlds.

If God asks more of the day and more of the night then this means the days are getting longer. Physics wise, this means that the rotation of Earth should be slowing down. However this is what it really turned out to be: The rotation of Earth is slowing down.

Our solar system is 4.57 billion years old. Earth started accreting concurrently with the sun and our neighbouring planets 4.57 bln years ago. However during the accretion process the radius of Earth was not spontaneously 6400 km; but rather started a few kilometers long and progressively increased. But the Surface Area = 4πR2, that is, as the radius increases the surface area increases. On the other hand the Quran says that God spread the Earth "والارض مددناها" meaning increase in surface area during formation; from this we can deduce increase in radius:

[Quran 50.7] And the Earth! We have spread it out, and set thereon mountains standing firm, and have produced therein every kind of lovely pairs (of plants).

The Quran says that God spread out Earth, that is, increased the surface area (not made it flat). This means increase in radius of Earth during the formation process contrary to the Christian Bible where the creation of Earth was spontaneous.

How could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have known that Earth is a slowly rotating sphere?

After the Romans were defeated by the Persians the Quran predicted that they shall be victorious again in the lowest of land. It happened that they achieved victory against the Persians in a battle on the Dead Sea.

[Quran 30.2-3] The Romans were defeated. In the lowest of land (adna in Arabic) they will be, after this defeat, victorious again.

Adna in Arabic has two meanings: the nearest and the lowest. Today we know that the Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth (423 m or 1388 ft below sea level).

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Seas

The difference in temperature, salinity and CO2 concentrations in seas cause water to separate into layers. This was only known recently. However Moslems knew about it all along:

[Quran 55.19-20] He [Allah] has made the two seas meet, between them a barrier that they don't transgress.

How could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago could have known that sea water can separate?

Not only light cannot reach deep waters but also the water layers down there are not flat but wavy, that is, the seas have internal waves just as they have surface waves. However Moslems also knew about this long before it was discovered:

[Quran 24.40] Or like the depths of darkness in a vast deep ocean, overwhelmed with waves topped by waves, topped by clouds: depths of darkness, one above another: if a man stretches out his hand, he will not see it! If Allah does not give light to a person he will not have light!

The Quran talked about internal waves long before it was discovered. Also, sunlight cannot penetrate more than few hundred meters into the seas. It is so dark down there that you cannot see your own hand. Moslems ask how could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have known that seas separate, have internal waves and there is no light down there?

The water cover about 71% of the Earth's surface. This is also the same ratio the word "water" and word "Land" appear in the Quran. "Water" 32 times and "Land" 13 times. The ratio of "Water" to the total (Water + Land) = 32/(32+13) = 71%.

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Tectonics

Earth's crust has been slowly moving for billions of years. Not only mountains are still slowly moving but also whole continents. Moslems say that this is what Allah says: 

[Quran 27.88] You see the mountains and think they are firmly fixed: but they are moving away just like the clouds are moving away: (such is) the artistry of Allah, Who disposes of all things in perfect order: For He knows all what you do.

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Cloud Seeding

During cloud formation, water can become supercooled, that is, it can get below freezing point but remain not frozen! This stage is so unstable that we can add some catalyst molecules to trigger rain. Historically humans used silver iodide, frozen carbon dioxide and some salts to trigger rain. This is known as cloud seeding.

However nature uses different material to seed the clouds. Nature uses both sea salt and land dust to trigger rain: Wind at the surface of the seas causes waves to roll. Those waves release aerosols into the air carrying the sea salt. The wind carry both the sea salt and the land dust to the clouds. The sea salt and land dust cause the supercooled water to coalesce and trigger precipitation.

[Quran 15:22] And We send the seeding winds, then cause the rain to descend from the sky, therewith providing you with water, though you are not the guardians of its stores.

How could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have known that wind has a seeding role in clouds?

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Atmospheric Pressure

Atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude; The higher the altitude the more difficult breathing becomes. Moslems say that this is what Allah says. The Quran says that as we ascend to the sky it becomes more difficult for us to breath:

[Quran 6.125] Those whom Allah wants to guide, He opens their chests to Islam; And those whom He wants to leave astray, He makes their chests tight and constricted, as if they are ascending to the sky: Such is the penalty of Allah on those who refuse to believe. 

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Brain Functions

For centuries it was thought that the frontal part of the human brain handled vision (simply because it is near the eyes). Today we know that this part does not handle vision. The part that handles vision turned out to be at the rear of the brain (click here to view image). The front part of the brain is called the prefrontal vortex and is responsible for concocting lies: Pathological liars have more prefrontal white matter.

[Quran 96.16] A lying sinful forehead.

The Quran says that disbelievers will be dragged from there liar forehead, that is, the part where they concoct lies is at the forehead. How could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have known that the front part of the brain handles lies?

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Genetics

Females have XX chromosomes, that is, they can only give one X chromosome. But since males have XY chromosomes then men can either give the X or the Y chromosome. This means that it is actually the males who determine the sex of the baby (by giving either the X or the Y chromosome).

[Quran 53:45-46] And He (Allah) creates pairs, male and female, from semen emitted.

The Quran says that it is the semen that determines whether the baby is male or female. But since semen only comes from males then this means that it is the males who determine the sex of the baby. How could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have known that it is the males who determine the sex of the baby?

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Signature

The Quran turned out to have a signature:
The count of all chapters in the Quran is a multiple of 19.
The sum of chapters' numbers in the Quran is a multiple of 19.
The sum of all digits mentioned in the Quran is a multiple of 19.
The count of the word "Allah" in all the Quran is a multiple of 19.
The sum of all verse numbers (Ayat numbers) in which the word "Allah" appears is a multiple of 19.
Some chapters start with letters that have no meaning at all. When we add the number of occurrences of those letters in their chapters we always get a multiple of 19... So if anyone changed a single word containing those letters in the Quran the signature would have been broken.

God says that He assigned 19 angels to guard Hell, and He made their count "19" so that believers will increase their faith:

[Quran 74.30] Over it are Nineteen (angels). 31 And We have set none but angels as guardians to this fire; and We have fixed their number only as a trial for nonbelievers. So that the People of the Book may arrive to certainty. Hence believers may increase their faith and no doubts may be left for the People of the Book and the believers. And so that those of wicked hearts and the nonbelievers may say "What does Allah intend by this?", this is how Allah leads astray whom He pleases and guides whom He pleases. And no one can know the count of soldiers of your Lord, except Him. And this is no other than a warning to mankind.

Moslems ask where did this come from? How could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have figured out that the stars were born from heated gas and dust if he never had a telescope? How could he have described the early stages of the embryonic development of a fetus if he never had a microscope? How could he have located the lowest geographical point on Earth if he never had a GPS?

Moslems ask if their prophet were not sent by God then where did this come from?

[Quran 41.53] We (Allah) will show them Our signs in the universe, and in their souls, until it becomes clear to them that It (the Quran) is the truth. Is it not enough (for nonbelievers) that your Lord witnesses over all things?

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[1] It is the angels who execute God's orders:

[Quran 79.5] Execute orders (Mudaberat Amran in Arabic)

"Mudaberat" in Arabic means execute and "Amr" means order. These exact two words are also used in describing the rate at which God's orders are executed:

Speed of Light in Quran[Quran 32.5] (Allah) Rules the cosmic affair (Yudaber Al-Amr in Arabic) from the heavens to the Earth. Then this affair travels to Him a distance in one day, at a measure of one thousand years of what you count.

Both these verses use the same words and both refer to angels. "Araj" means a man with a lame leg; "Yaruj" means a man stepping. This verse particularly says "Yaruj" describing angels taking steps. The measure of these steps is called distance. The distance traveled by angels in 1000 lunar years is 12000 lunar orbits.

The lunar year is around 32.5 times the difference between the lunar and the solar year. But from Quran 32.5 we can calculate the speed of light also using the lunar years. So the number 32.5 cannot be a coincidence. (The exact ratio is 32.5707... but Sura 32 only has 30 verses, so no verse 57, no 570, no 5707...).

About the Preserved Tablet:

[Quran 85.21-22] But it is a Glorious Quran. 22 Inscribed on a Preserved Tablet.

Moslems believe that Archangel Gabriel got the Quran to their prophet from this Preserved Tablet:

[Quran 15.8-11] We only send down the angels in Truth; if they were not (in truth), no respite would they have. We have sent down the Message and We will preserve it. We did send Messengers before you among the religious sects of the old, but never came a Messenger to them but they mocked him.

The Quran and all the instructions to all angels were inscribed on this Preserved Tablet before the creation of Earth started. They commute to and from this Tablet to get their orders from God. The angels were originally made of light, and the speed at which they commute to and from this Tablet turned out to be the known speed of light.

[2] What would happen if Earth suddenly stopped in its track while orbiting the sun? Earth would plummet into the sun, right? If it were not for distant stars then how would you know that Earth is orbiting the sun? Maybe it is the sun that is orbiting Earth. Or better yet, maybe Earth and sun are both fixed in their positions. So how do you know? It is the background of distant stars that tells you which is orbiting which.

Our physics today simply does not work in the synodic system. For example, this equation gives you the distance to the moon by simply knowing the sidereal lunar month (27.3 days):

Speed of Light

If you use the time for synodic lunar month (29.5 days) it gives you the wrong distance to the moon (consequently wrong energy, wrong momentum...). But what you should keep in mind is that the equations in the sidereal system have no counterpart in the synodic system.

Although the moon keeps facing Earth it is actually spinning with respect to distant stars. Since the moon is spinning then it should bulge at the equator, right? However an observer on Earth sees the bulge but does not see the spin of the moon. When we calculate the bulge from spin with respect to Earth we get the wrong value (does not match observation). When we calculate the bulge from spin with respect to the sun we also get the wrong value. However when we calculate the bulge from spin with respect to distant stars we get the correct value. This should tell you that the bulge is a consequence of the spin with respect to distant stars (neither with respect to Earth nor with respect to the sun). This is why classical orbital mechanics (and general relativity) are based on the sidereal system, that is, rotation (and precession) are with respect to stars (this is different than motion relative to stars).

Some skeptics argue that due to Earth's motion around the sun the length of the lunar orbit is longer for an observer on the sun, however this is also false. Why? Because the distance between Earth and the moon (R) is the same whether measured from Earth, from the sun or from the center of another galaxy... And since the length of the lunar orbit is simply 2πR then the length of the lunar orbit is the same for an observer on the sun, on the moon, Andromeda... Actually you should deduce from the above equation that R is measured the same for any observer in the Newtonian limit (non-relativistic).

Other skeptics insist on the synodic system which is a geocentric frame non-rotating with respect to sun; however this frame is rotating with respect to stars. But rotating frames with respect to stars by definition are non-inertial. They falsely claim that the speed of light in this rotating frame is 299792.458 km/sec. Also in this rotating frame they calculate the length of the lunar orbit wrong: The length of the lunar orbit in this rotating frame is L=VT; they use the correct time (29.5 days) however they use the wrong velocity. They do not use the velocity of the moon as measured in this rotating frame; instead they use the velocity of the moon as measured in a geocentric frame non-rotating with respect to stars (3682.8 km/hr or 1.023 km/sec). They falsely claim that the velocity of the moon in a rotating frame is equal to the velocity of the moon in a non-rotating frame. This comparison is invalid.

The sidereal system is a local frame non-rotating with respect to stars. The difference between a local frame non-rotating with respect to stars and a local frame non-rotating with respect to the CMB is extremely negligible and cannot change the result. The effect of our galaxy is also too small to make any difference. The only thing that really matters is the effect of sun's gravity on our local frame of reference.

[3] Consider a spherical mass of weakly-interacting particles (say a gas) and a spherical gravitational source (say the moon). The gravitational force is stronger on the particles of gas closer to the moon than on the particles of gas farther out. The difference in forces makes the sphere of gas to be stretched into an ellipsoid. (General relativity explains why the actual tidal effect generated by a spherical gravitational source is stretching in the radial direction and additional squeezing in the transverse direction). In our case the moon stretches the oceans into an ellipsoid while Earth is too rigid to change shape; so we end up with two tidal bulges one facing the moon and another one opposite to it. This is why we have two high tides a day instead of one.

You might ask why does the much stronger gravitational force of the sun actually produce much smaller tidal bulges than the moon? Well it is not the magnitude of the forces that causes the stretching but rather the difference in forces. Although the sun's gravitational forces are stronger in magnitude, the much bigger distance to the sun causes this difference in forces to be much smaller; hence the weaker stretching and smaller bulges. If the radius of the oceans (or the sphere of gas) was as big as the radius of the lunar orbit then the sun's average gravitational force on the particles closer to and farther out from the sun would be the same as it is today but the increased difference in forces would stretch this sphere into an ellipsoid with bulges thousands of kilometers high. This ellipsoid will always be oriented towards the sun; but as Earth goes around the sun the position of the sun relative to Earth with respect to stars changes. This means that with respect to stars this ellipsoid will always be rotating in order to point to the sun again; this rotation with respect to stars is rotational kinetic energy. As the distance to the sun increases to infinity the position of the sun relative to Earth with respect to stars remains the same, hence as the distance to the sun increases this sphere of particles will lose this twist. This means that sun's gravitational field along with Earth's motion around the sun produce a net rotational force on this sphere of particles (gravitational twist). So the sun exerts gravitational twist on the Earth-moon system in the same way that Earth exerts gravitational twist on the moon.

[4] Sun's gravitational field along with Earth's motion around the sun produce a net rotational force on the lunar orbit (like torque around Earth). Without this gravitational assist the moon's isolated orbital length would only be L' = Lcosø:

This restricted three-body problem is similar to the 1973 Pioneer 10 spacecraft gravitational assist by Jupiter. The data published by NASA show that the kinetic energy of the spacecraft increased five folds (enough to exit the entire solar system). This increase in kinetic energy came from Jupiter's motion around the sun.

Pioneer 10

In a Jupiter centered frame non-rotating with respect to sun the speed of the satellite before the encounter was equal to the speed after the encounter (change in direction only); however this frame is rotating with respect to stars. In a heliocentric frame non-rotating with respect to stars (inertial frame) the kinetic energy of the satellite increased five folds, enough to escape sun's gravity.

The approach to Jupiter was in the same direction as the moon orbits Earth around the sun. The only difference between the two gravitational assists is that Pioneer 10 had an open orbit while our moon has a closed one. In this closed orbit the increase in kinetic energy makes our moon orbit at a higher altitude above Earth. So when the Earth-moon system is inertial (without this assist) the moon should orbit at lower altitude.

Also the data published by NASA show that the velocities before and after the gravitational assists can be calculated vectorially, that is, you can use trigonometry to calculate the magnitude and direction, and hence the kinetic energy. Learn more: Gravitational Assist in Celestial Mechanics - a tutorial.

In a geocentric frame non-rotating with respect to sun the moon speeds up when it heads towards the sun and then slows down by the same amount when it heads away from the sun. However in a geocentric frame non-rotating with respect to stars the sectors where the moon speeds up and slows down are actually moving forward inside the orbit by the same angle Earth orbits the sun. In this frame there is a rotational force around Earth; a twist or gravitational assist.

This rotational force is evident in the NASA animation of Swift J1644+57, a star consumed by a black hole: 

In this example the direction is different but the dynamics are the same. The gravitational force is stronger on the particles of gas closer to the black hole than on the particles of gas farther out. The difference in forces stretches the sphere of gas into an ellipsoid. But this ellipsoid will always be oriented towards the black hole. So as this star goes around the black hole the position of the black hole relative to the star changes. This means that in a star centered frame non-rotating with respect to CMB (or distant stars) this ellipsoid will rotate in order to point to the black hole again. This rotation with respect to distant stars is rotational kinetic energy. The star's Hydrogen gas gains energy and orbits higher above the star. A point is reached where gravity of the black hole becomes dominant and steals this gas away from the star.

For the geocentric frame system to be inertial then the distance to the sun has to increase to infinity. And as the distance to the sun increases to infinity the lunar orbit loses this twist; but this also means that the moon would no longer have enough kinetic energy to stay long at the compounded radius R and isolated velocity V' = Vcosø (too high too slow), instead it starts a spiral descent to the isolated radius R' = Rcosø and accelerates to final velocity Speed of Light. To calculate the isolated lunar orbit we only need the isolated radius R' = Rcosø (and not the isolated velocity). Hence the moon's isolated orbital length becomes L' = 2πR' = 2πRcosø = Lcosø (i.e. 12000 L' / t' = 12000 Lcosø / t').

Simply put: Outside the gravitational field of the sun all observers will see the speed of light equal to 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day.

An observer on Earth sees this force as rotational around Earth, however an observer on the sun sees this same force as radial towards the sun (not towards Earth). But no matter from where observers are looking they will all see this same force doing the same work.

In the isolated Earth-moon system (no sun) all external forces are screened out. This reveals the intrinsic characteristics, relations and capabilities of the system, that is, what the Earth-moon system can do on its own without any external forces. The energy for this isolated velocity V' came from a reaction force from Earth (see ocean friction above) and not from sun's gravitational force. As the moon acquires more energy from Earth's spin it does not actually speed up, instead it slows down because it orbits at a higher altitude (R' increases); the orbital period increases and the length of the lunar orbit increases. As R' reaches R, the isolated lunar orbit would have acquired the same radius and velocity as the one achieved with the assistance of the sun (R' = R & V' = V) but with a slower rotating Earth.

The nearest and farthest points in the orbit give us the average distance to the moon; but since Earth lies on the major axis of the ellipse then the average distance to the moon is just the semi-major axis. Geometrically, the radius of the equivalent circle should be the average of semi-major and semi-minor axes; but since the direction of the axes change with respect to stars then when the moon returns to the same position with respect to stars this does not mean that it made an exact ellipse. When astronomers study the energy of our moon and also the energy of moons orbiting other planets they use the equivalent circle method with the sidereal system, that is, the moon has to return to the same position with respect to stars and not return to the same position relative to the ellipse.

[5] Earth is spinning with respect to stars much faster than the moon is orbiting Earth. This makes the angle between Earth's isolated and compounded vectors to be different than that of the moon. Today when Earth rotates 360 degrees on its axis with respect to stars Earth moves 0.9829560917 degrees around the sun. Hence Earth's twist angle α = 0.9829560917 degrees.

α = (360 degrees / 365.2421987 synodic days) x (86164.0906 sec/86400 sec) synodic days = 0.9829560917 degrees

Just like when the moon recedes from Earth its spin slows down also when Earth recedes from the sun its spin slows down, that is, its rotational kinetic energy decrease (learn why at footnote [3]). So as the distance to the sun increases to infinity Earth day increases to Speed of Light.

The ratio of the work required to stop Earth's rotation is:

Speed of Light

This means that without the energy gained from this twist Earth day increases to Speed of Light = 86170.43114 seconds (6 seconds increase from 86164.0906 sec).

[6] Have you heard about the solar wind? This is actually mass ejected from the surface of the sun. But when this mass gets ejected the mass of the sun decreases. Lower solar mass leads to weaker gravitational force between the sun and Earth. Earth that was at the right velocity around the sun now becomes a little bit too fast for this weaker gravitational force (excess kinetic energy). To compensate for this imbalance, Earth recedes a bit from the sun (trades excess kinetic energy with potential energy above the sun). After receding a bit from the sun, Earth slows down a bit and returns to equilibrium. But again more and more mass is ejected from the sun, weaker gravitational forces... and the cycle repeats itself.

Actually any star that loses half its mass loses all the planets around it (its planets fly off). You can find the solution for circular orbits in:

'High Energy Astrophysics', S. Rosswog & M. Bruggen, Cambridge University Press (2007).

Page 218: "We find that the mass loss has to be smaller than for the system to remain bound."

This means that any star that loses half its mass will become gravitationally unbound to the planets around it. All the planets around it will simply fly off. In conclusion, the distance to the sun (a star) is not a constant.

[7] Recalling the very famous second postulate of Special Relativity declared by Einstein (1905):

"The velocity c of light in vacuum is the same in all inertial frames of reference in all directions and depend neither on the velocity of the source nor on the velocity of the observer"

Einstein's theory of special relativity says that the speed of light in vacuum is always measured the same (at 299,792.458 km/s) however this is only true locally for systems that are inertial, which means not accelerating. From Newton's second law: if forces exist implies acceleration exists; this means that if you are in a spaceship and fire your rockets then you are not inertial.

The other factor besides acceleration is gravity. Albert Einstein himself emphasized in his paper in 1917:

"The results of the special relativity hold only so long as we are able to disregard the influence of gravitational fields on the phenomena"

In 1915 (10 years after special relativity) Einstein developed another theory called General Relativity that deals with gravitational fields and according to this latest theory the velocity of light appears to vary with the intensity of the gravitational field. For example, an observer outside gravitational fields measures the speed of light locally (in his location) at 299792.458 km/s but when he looks towards a black hole he sees the speed of light there to be as slow as a few meters/sec. At the same time an observer freefalling into that black hole (zero-g) measures the speed of light locally (in his location) at 299792.458 km/s; when he looks towards the black hole he sees the speed of light there much slower; when he looks away from the black hole he sees the speed of light there much faster. If he tries to resist his freefall into that black hole (by firing his rockets for example) he will not measure the speed of light locally anymore at 299792.458 km/s; instead the stronger the g-force that he feels the faster light appears to him. Again when he looks towards the black hole he sees the speed of light there much slower; when he looks away from the black hole he sees the speed of light there much faster. In any case, freefalling or not, he will never see the speed of light outside gravitational fields at 299792.458 km/s. Finally, there is no difference between the effects of g-forces experienced from these rockets and the effects of g-forces experienced when standing on planets, stars... hence an observer standing on a black hole measures the speed of light locally (in his location) much faster than 299792.458 km/s; when he looks towards outside gravitational fields he sees the speed of light there a zillion km/s.

In the presence of gravity the speed of light becomes relative. To see the steps how Einstein theorized that the measured speed of light in a gravitational field is actually not a constant but rather a variable depending upon the reference frame of the observer:

'On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light', Annalen der Physik, 35, 1911.

Einstein wrote this paper in 1911 in German (download from: http://www.physik.uni-augsburg.de/annalen/history/einstein-papers/1911_35_898-908.pdf). It predated the full formal development of general relativity by about four years. You can find an English translation of this paper in the Dover book 'The Principle of Relativity' beginning on page 99; you will find in section 3 of that paper Einstein's derivation of the variable speed of light in a gravitational potential, eqn (3). The result is:

c' = co (1+ F/c2)

WhereFis the gravitational potential relative to the point where the speed of light co is measured. Simply put: Light appears to travel slower in stronger gravitational fields (near bigger mass).

You can find a more sophisticated derivation later by Einstein (1955) from the full theory of general relativity in the weak field approximation:

'The Meaning of Relativity', A. Einstein, Princeton University Press (1955).

See pages 92-93, eqn (107); the variable velocity of light expressed in coordinates is:

Simply put: Light appears to travel slower near bigger mass (in stronger gravitational fields). A non-mathematical discussion of this can be found in:

'The Riddle of Gravitation', Peter G. Bergmann, Charles Scribner's Sons, NY (1987).

See pages 65-66. Bergmann takes the deflection of light by the gravitational field of a star as evidence of the decreased speed of light in a gravitational field.

You can also find modern direct derivations that lead to the same results by Einstein:

'Relativity, Gravitation, and Cosmology', T. Cheng, Oxford University Press (2005).

For the 1911 results see pages 48-49, eqn (3.39):

For the 1955 results but not in coordinates see page 93, eqn (6.28):

Namely the 1955 approximation shows a variation in km/sec twice as much as first predicted in 1911.

Km/sec is a scalar, however gravitational length contraction and time dilation make it impossible to represent the speed of light by a scalar. (Discuss in forum: There is a difference between the radial speed of light and the tangential speed of light. The effects of gravitation can only be accurately represented by a tensor field).

Contrary to Special Relativity, the measured speed of light in a gravitational field is not a constant, but rather a variable depending upon the reference frame of the observer; what one observer sees as true another observer sees as false. The only observers that can actually agree that the speed of light outside gravitational fields is 299792.458 km/s are those who are themselves outside gravitational fields.

[8] Moslems believe that God sustains all living things. And all His commands to the angels to sustain man and animals were inscribed on the Preserved Tablet. The Quran says that not even a leaf would drop on Earth without it being previously recorded in this Preserved Tablet.

God says that He inscribed this Preserved Tablet before the creation of Earth started; He answered our prayers today (as commands for the angels on the Preserved Tablet) during the first four days since Earth was still smoke. After this He ordered Earth to form:

[Quran 41.9-12] Say: "Is it that you deny Him [Allah] who created the Earth in two days? And you claim others to be equal to Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds." 10 He set on it (Earth) mountains, and bestowed it with blessings. And [Allah] estimated all its sustenance in four days, equally  for those who ask (prayers) 11 AFTER THIS (Thumma in Arabic) [Allah] commanded the heaven and it was still smoke. He said to it and to Earth: "Come together, willingly or unwillingly." They said: "We do come together, in willing obedience". 12 So [Allah] decreed them as seven heavens (one above the other) in two days and revealed to each heaven its orders. And We [Allah] adorned the lowest heaven with lights, and protection. Such is the decree of the Exalted; the Knowledgeable.

God answered our prayers today since Earth was still smoke (the first four days). After this (Thumma) God ordered Earth to form. The formation of Earth took two days. So our prayers today are already answered on the Preserved Tablet since before the formation of Earth started. Also in the first two days God revealed orders to the seven superimposed heavens.

[9] The Christian Bible says that in the beginning God said "Let there be light" Genesis 1:3. Well it turned out that in the beginning photons couldn't travel at all. After the Big Bang the universe was primarily Hydrogen, Helium and a tiny bit of Lithium. However when a gas is too hot it becomes ionized (loses the electrons) and becomes opaque (like today's smoke). In the beginning the universe was opaque to visible light (non-transparent). After 380,000 years the universe cooled enough and it became transparent to visible light. For other wavelengths it was opaque for a billion years. So "Let there be light" turned out to be false.

Also the Christian Bible says that the universe was created six thousand years ago. Science says that the universe was created 13.7 billion years ago. We can actually observe galaxies 13 billion light years away; that is, light already traveled 13 billion years before it reached us. This alone proves their Bible wrong. To fix this problem, they need the speed of light to decay (to slow down over time); that is, light was faster and covered that distance in much shorter time. But the theory of relativity says that the speed of light is constant over time (no decay)... Since the theory of relativity contradicts their Bible, they need the theory of relativity to be wrong for their Bible to be correct.

Some Christians claim that Quran 32.5 (angels travel in one day the same distance that the moon travels in a 1000 lunar years) is a restatement of this Bible verse:

(2Peter 3:8) But do not forget this one thing, dear friends: With the Lord a day is like a thousand years, AND A THOUSAND YEARS ARE LIKE A DAY. 9 The Lord is not slow in keeping his promise, as some understand slowness. He is patient with you, not wanting anyone to perish, but everyone to come to repentance.

Obviously this verse is talking about God's patience, but some Christians say that it predated the scientific miracles of the Quran.

The first problem with this Christian claim is that the Quran is referring to the angels moving and not to God moving. Here in this Bible verse God has to be moving. And assuming that God is moving, not only this verse does not talk about any distance traveled but also Christians and the Jews before them used solar years. The solar year is the revolution of Earth around the sun with respect to distant stars (not related to the lunar orbit).

The Christian solar year is simply the revolution of Earth around the sun with respect to distant stars. So 1000 Earth's Orbits around the sun / Earth Day is 36.5 times faster than light. Moreover during a solar year there are 12.37 lunar months. The Jews used to add a 13th lunar month every few years to make up for the difference between the lunar and the solar calendar. So a year in the Bible is by no means related to the moon.

Second problem, this verse describes time vs. time (and not time vs. distance). So if this time difference (time dilation) is due to the mass of God's Throne then the Bible got it wrong as well: 1 day at God's Throne should measure 2.28 billion years on Earth; instead the Bible says "With the Lord a day is like a thousand years". Here the Bible missed by a whole 2,280,000,000 years! The other part says "AND A THOUSAND YEARS ARE LIKE A DAY", that is, 1000 years by God measures 1 day on Earth. Here the Bible got it in reverse! So how small is God's Throne? Even if God's Throne is microscopic, Earth is not massive enough to generate this time dilation.

Third problem, if this verse was referring to time dilation due to God's movement then it got it all wrong as well. For an object to move it needs to accelerate. But acceleration causes clocks to run slower, the stronger the acceleration the slower the clock; hence the faster moving object experiences slower time and not the other way round. In this verse in the Bible it is man who experiences the slower time hence travels faster than God! Man experiences less time of 1 day (travels fast) and God experiences more time of 1000 years (travels slow). This verse practically says that once God travels faster than man but immediately follows it with a fatal mistake that man travels faster than God. So no, the Bible got it wrong in every possible way.

But the Bible did indeed describe sunlight: Common sense says that sunlight illuminates Earth and that without sunlight darkness will cover Earth. Is there anything simpler? But the Bible says something else: In Genesis 1:1-31, the Bible explains how the sun is related to day and night. The Bible says that on the first day God created the light and darkness on Earth. The first evening came and the first morning followed. But God did not create the sun until the fourth day, specifically after three evenings and three mornings. So three evenings and the three mornings occurred on Earth before there was a sun. So according to the Bible daylight occurs without the sun!

Our sun is a very small star. Actually our solar system (including the atoms that you are made of) came from a dying star 100 times more massive than our sun. Some stars are even bigger than our solar system, so you can imagine how large stars are. However according to the Bible these stars are so small that they could fall on Earth: In Mark 13:24-30 Jesus said that stars will fall on Earth before his second coming. Actually he said that stars will fall on Earth before even that generation pass away. However that generation passed away a long time ago and no star ever fell on Earth nor ever will. Do you know why? Because Earth will vaporize before it even contacts a star; so the events prophesied in the Bible are supposed to occur on Earth when Earth is already vaporized!

The Christian Bible says that the sky is "hard as a mirror of cast bronze" Job 37:18. So the Bible insists on a static universe. Actually Albert Einstein's famous blunder, the cosmological constant, was to explain the static universe. Although at that time no scientific evidence existed to support that claim, Einstein gave the Bible the benefit of the doubt and went for a static universe, non-expanding non-contracting. Later, when Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the universe, Einstein retracted this cosmological constant and called it the biggest blunder of his career. By trusting the Bible Einstein got it wrong by the order of 10120.

While today's scientists have confirmed that animals inherit their colors and stripes from their parents (through DNA), the Bible says something else: In Genesis 30:37-42, the Bible explains how baby goats get their streaked colors: If their parents were mating AND LOOKING at upright rods then the baby goats will have stripes; while if their parents were mating BUT NOT LOOKING at upright rods then the baby goats will not have stripes!

[Quran 2.23-24] And if you were in doubt about what We have revealed to Our servant, then bring forth a book like the Quran; and call your witnesses (scientists) to prove it contrary to Allah, if you were truthful. 24 But you cannot and will never (be able). So beware of a fire whose fuel is men and stones prepared for blasphemers.

[Quran 42.14] They only disbanded after they received knowledge (of their Bible) fallaciously among them. And if it were not a word from your Lord [Allah] that postponed it to a later date, it would have been all settled among them then. And those who inherited the Book (the Bible) from them are in great suspicion of it. 15 Therefore call them (to the Quran) and straighten your ways as you are ordered and don't follow their passions and say: "I believe in what Allah revealed of the Book (The Quran) and I was ordered to be just among you (both Christians and Jews); Allah is our Lord and your Lord, we have our actions and you have your actions, no argument between us and you, Allah brings us together and to Him we are (all) destined."

To Moslems:

[Quran 6.108] Do not curse those who call (to worship) other than Allah, so that they don't curse Allah out of spite and ignorance. This is how We [Allah] appealed to each people its own actions; then they will be brought back to their Lord [Allah] who will inform them of what they have been doing.

 

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