299792.458 km/s
 

Speed of Light in GravitySpeed of Light in Gravity
Effect of Gravity on the Measured Speed of Light

An observer outside gravitational fields measures the speed of light locally (in his location) at 299792.458 km/s but when he looks towards a black hole he sees the speed of light there to be as slow as a few meters/s. At the same time an observer freefalling into that black hole measures the speed of light locally (in his location) at 299792.458 km/s; when he looks towards the black hole he sees the speed of light there much slower; when he looks away from the black hole he sees the speed of light there much faster. When he looks towards outside gravitational fields he sees the speed of light there a zillion km/s. In 1915 (10 years after Special Relativity) Einstein developed another theory called General Relativity where gravity causes the speed of light to become relative (variable depending on the reference frame of the observer).

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Cosmological Speed of Light
Cosmological Speed of Light
Expansion of Universe and the Speed of Light

Astronomers just confirmed the existence of "Dark Energy", a mysterious repulsive force that acts in opposite to gravity. This "Dark Energy" is causing the entire universe to expand at an increasing rate. This Dark Energy is even causing distant galaxies to recede from us faster than our local speed of light. Scientists today do not know what this "Dark Energy" is but they know that it is dragging inertial frames apart. This means that light en route is being dragged away from us. This makes observers to see distant inbound light at effective speeds less than 299792.458 km/s and to see distant outbound light at effective speeds greater than 299792.458 km/s. However every inertial observer measures the speed of light locally (in his location) at 299792.458 km/s in any direction.

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12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth DaySpeed of Light
Inertial Earth-Moon System = Speed of Light

The measured speed of light in local inertial frames is 299792.458 km/sec. So if you want to make a comparison with "299792.458 km/sec" then you have to make it in a "local inertial frame". When we compare the nominal speed of light with 12000 Lunar Orbits / Earth Day inside the gravitational field of the sun (non-inertial frame) we get 11% difference; however when we compare them outside the gravitational field of the sun (inertial frame) we get zero% difference: The distance to the sun is not a constant, so as the distance to the sun increases the difference in energy causes the length of the lunar orbit to change. When the Earth-moon system exits the solar system the geocentric frame travels in a straight line (becomes inertial) and 12000 Lunar Orbits / Earth Day becomes equivalent to the speed of light.

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12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day
Inertial Earth-Moon System Gives: Speed of Light

You cannot talk about the speed of light without defining your frame of reference. The measured speed of light in local inertial frames is 299792.458 km/sec. So if you want to make a comparison with "299792.458 km/sec" then you have to make it in a "local inertial frame". Special Relativity requires the frame of reference to be inertial (travel in a straight line). Since Earth (our local frame of reference) is orbiting the sun then it is not traveling in a straight line, hence it is not inertial. So when we compare the nominal speed of light with 12000 Lunar Orbits / Earth Day inside the gravitational field of the sun (non-inertial frame) we get 11% difference; however when the geocentric frame is inertial we get zero% difference.

But 1400 years ago it was stated in the Quran (Koran, the book of Islam) that angels travel in one day the same distance that the moon travels in 1000 lunar years, that is, 12000 Lunar Orbits / Earth Day. When the geocentric frame is inertial 12000 Lunar Orbits/Earth Day turned out to be the local speed of light!!!

 
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